Migrant Totals

Published April 2021


One of the difficulties faced by recorders when they catch a rare immigrant is in confirming how many previous records there are of the species in Britain and Ireland, as inevitably the published field guides become dated very quickly. The following list covering immigrant macromoths and pyraloids is regularly updated and thus provides a resource for recorders to assist in establishing an accurate, contemporary status of any of the listed species.

Totals are compiled by Sean Clancy from a wide range of published material within the entomological press and literature, and some unpublished material sourced online or supplied directly by County Moth Recorders. For practical reasons, totals are provided to the end of 2019 with the exception of species recorded fewer than 20 times in Britain for which 2020 records are also included in the totals and mentioned in the comments section. Due to the delay in some records becoming circulated, the totals are best regarded as minimum totals as it is possible that additional records may surface from 2018 onwards. These totals will be updated annually on this basis, i.e. during spring 2022 the totals will include records up to the end of the 2020 season plus all 2021 records of immigrant species recorded less than 20 times prior to that season.

The figures quoted are generally the total number of individual adult examples ever recorded within Britain and Ireland. Where a '+' follows the figure it represents the minimum figure, this is necessary with some species where unconfirmed, duplicated or unpublished records may exist and the figure is based on the precise number of confirmed, published records but may not be comprehensive. In some species there is a cut-off period for which the number of records listed dates back to, generally because of a lack of clarity in older, historic records. For more regularly occurring immigrants it has only been possible to produce a ten-year total for comparison due to minimum annual totals at a national level only being available for recent seasons (currently this covers the 2008 to 2017 seasons, to be advanced by one year annually). For all species, the basis of each figure is provided in the comments section which may also include additional records of the early stages. For species that may have colonised locally but continue to occur as immigrants, totals exclude records likely to be associated with UK breeding populations but there may be some overlap so these are best regarded as approximate.

This list is of macromoths given first in alphabetical order of the vernacular name and pyraloids listed second in alphabetical order of the respective genera.

If quoting information from this page please acknowledge the source as ‘Clancy, S.P. (year). Atropos website: migrant totals. http://www.atropos.info'

For the latest news of immigrant insect sightings in the British Isles visit the Atropos Flight Arrivals page. Post your own sightings and photographs instantly and share with others.


Species: Accent Gem Ctenoplusia accentifera
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: The two UK records occurred at Halstead (VC15) on 10.9.1969 & Exmouth (VC3) on 29.10.2014.


Species: African Condica capensis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record occurred in VC2 in May 1958 in association with an immigration from the south.


Species: Alchymist Catephia alchymista
Total no Recs: 21
Comments/Details: Many of the 21 records are historic with just the following five since 1934: Middleton-on-sea (VC13) on 3.7.1963, Bexhill-on-sea (VC14) on 24.8.2006 & 8.5.2007, Stoke Newington (VC21) on 6.9.2016 and Lowestoft (VC25) on 12.5.2018; a record number occurred in 2020 but have not yet been added to the above total.


Species: Angle-striped Sallow Enargia paleacea
Total no Recs: 118
Comments/Details: Total relates to extralimital records of suspected immigrants, these generally occurring earlier in the season than resident populations; the peak arrival occurred as long ago as 1964 when there were 26 such records.


Species: Banded Pine Carpet Pungeleria capreolaria
Total no Recs: 16
Comments/Details: The first UK records occurred as recently as 2014 when four records of first-brood examples occurred during May & June. Has been recorded annually since with the exception of 2018; the 16 records to date have involved nine first-brood and seven second-brood examples. By vice-county these have occurred in VC's 9 (three), 10, 11, 13, 14 (three), 15 (five), 17 & 37.


Species: Barberry Carpet Pareulype berberata
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: Presumed immigrant examples from south-east Kent.


Species: Beautiful Marbled Eublemma purpurina
Ten year total 2008-17: 50
Comments/Details: First recorded in 2001, the incidence of this species has markedly increased in recent seasons with record seasons every year since 2018 and probable domestic breeding in several areas; this has resulted in purpurina now being collated on a ten-year basis.


Species: Bedrule Brocade Mniotype solieri
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record occurred at Bedrule (VC80) on 29.8.1976; a southern European species.


Species: Bedstraw Hawk-moth Hyles gallii
Ten year total 2008-17: 212+
Comments/Details: Ten-year total of probable immigrant adults only. Larvae are also occasionally recorded, with this species established for a longer period in East Anglia, and adult numbers probably bolstered by locally bred moths.


Species: Berber Pseudenargia ulicis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only UK record to date was taken in the New Forest (VC11) on 16.8.1935.


Species: Black Collar Dichagyris flammatra
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: Total includes three well-documented pre-1900 records: from VC10 in 1859 & 1876, and VC27 in 1875; the only records since have come from VC34 in June 1968 and VC112 in June 1997.


Species: Black V Moth Arctornis l-nigrum
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: The five records exclude a few rather vague 19th Century records, and records associated with a breeding population that was present in VC18 from 1947 to 1960. The primary immigrant records occurred in VC19 in 1904, VC13 in 1946, VC16 in 2006, VC10 in 2015 and VC15 in 2020.


Species: Blair's Mocha Cyclophora puppillaria
Ten year total 2008-17: 219+
Comments/Details: The ten-year total attempts to exclude those records clearly originating from localised breeding, this becoming evident in localised parts of VC's 10, 11 & 13 from 2006. That season produced an exceptionally high frequency of migrant insects and southerly airstreams across Britain, with puppillaria colonies persisting in some areas subsequently, most particularly in several coastal localities in West Sussex.


Species: Blossom Underwing Orthosia miniosa
Ten year total 2008-17: 67
Comments/Details: Ten-year total relates to probable immigrant records only. Immigrants occur in most seasons, these generally in extralimital sites or unsuitable habitat along the south and east coasts of England during late March & April.


Species: Bordered Straw Heliothis peltigera
Ten year total 2008-17: 3909+
Comments/Details: A species that can fluctuate greatly in numbers from one year to the next with good seasons sometimes resulting in a home-bred second generation in southern England during the late summer/autumn.The ten-year total includes annual totals of just six in 2008, and the record total of at least 3154 adults in 2015.


Species: Bright Wave Idaea ochrata
Total no Recs: 26
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant examples unassociated with breeding populations in VC15; mainly from coastal southern and eastern England. Two previously included records from western Ireland in 2006 have now been discredited.

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Species: Boathouse Gem Thysanoplusia daubei
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: The first British record was taken on the Lizard (VC1) in 2014, with two more records in 2020, from VC13 in July and Co Waterford, Eire in September; a resident of the Mediterranean region & North Africa.

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Species: Burren Green Calamia tridens
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A single British mainland record that occurred in Essex in July 2014 in association with an arrival of immigrant Lepidoptera from the east.


Species: Cameo Crypsedra gemmea
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record occurred at an inland site in VC22 on 1.9.1979; a striking moth that is widely distributed in parts of central and northern mainland Europe; at the time of this record it was stated to be extending its range and have the potential to re-occur.

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Species: Chevron Snout Hypena lividalis
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: The first British example was taken in Greenwich, London (VC16) on 9.11.2015; this has been closely followed by records in Surrey (VC17) on 18.10.2017 and Kent (VC15) on 13.7.2019, both coinciding with arrivals of other immigrant species. A distinctive species that is apparently undergoing north-westward range expansion in continental Europe.


Species: Clifden Nonpareil Catocala fraxini
Ten year total 2008-17: c.241
Comments/Details: Ten-year total is necessarily approximate due to confusion caused by scattered resident populations across southern England; listed records generally relate to coastal, extralimital or out of habitat records apparently unassociated with known breeding populations. Traditionally an immigrant from the east, recent records suggest immigrants also arriving from the south with records along the whole of the south coast; in association with the formation of new colonies, an increase in primary immigration in this species has been clearly evident in recent years.


Species: Cloaked Pug Eupithecia abietaria
Total no Recs: c.80
Comments/Details: An approximate figure of potential immigrant records, although some of these records may relate to internal vagrancy.


Species: Concolorous Chortodes extrema
Total no Recs: 52+
Comments/Details: Total relates to records of suspected immigrants not associated with resident populations. Almost all of these immigrant records have occurred during June & early July in south-east England, a majority in VC15; the record annual total of at least eight such records occurred in 2017.


Species: Conformist Lithophane furcifera
Total no Recs: 12
Comments/Details: Total relates to the nominate, immigrant race. The only records since 1946 occurred at Seaton Sluice (VC67) on 16.4.2007 & Insh (VC96) on 9.4.2011; a hibernating species that can occur during the autumn or spring months.


Species: Convolvulus Hawk-moth Agrius convolvuli
Ten year total 2008-17: 3102+
Comments/Details: Ten-year total of adults only; larval records occur in most years and larvae can be found in good numbers in late summer/early autumn following large arrivals of adults during the summer period. A regular immigrant that usually produces three-figure annual totals; the peak annual adult counts of 2,671 in 2003 and 2,335 in 2006 remain more than three times greater than any other annual total.


Species: Cosmopolitan Leucania loreyi
Ten year total 2008-17: 363
Comments/Details: An immigrant that has become more frequent in recent seasons, particularly into south-west England in the late autumn. Annual numbers fluctuate greatly with 532 adults recorded during the record year of 2006, but a combined total of just six records during the 2007 & 2009 seasons.


Species: Crimson Speckled Utetheisa pulchella
Total no Recs: 557
Comments/Details: Totals of this distinctive species include well-documented records back to 1818; these suggest that the species was more frequent in the 19th Century (when at least 270 examples were recorded) than in the 20th Century (when 135 were recorded), although the frequency of pulchella since the turn of the 21st Century has again shown an increase (157+ up to 2019). The peak arrival years to date are 1892 (49+) and 2011 (47), with a majority of records in recent years occurring in south-west England during the month of October.


Species: Dark Crimson Underwing Catocala sponsa
Ten year total 2008-17: 43
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable primary immigrant records only; in common with Clifden Nonpareil, records of immigrants have become harder to discern due to the wider presence of breeding populations in recent seasons and totals generally relate to coastal, extralimital or out of habitat records away from known breeding localities. Numbers of such immigrant records have increased since the turn of the century resulting in migrant sponsa records now being collated on a ten-year basis.


Species: Dark Mottled Willow Spodoptera cilium
Total no Recs: 36
Comments/Details: A strong bias for records into the far south-west of England during late September & October; the first UK records occurred in 1990 with the record annual total of seven adults arriving during the autumn of 2011. Whilst remaining a true rarity, cilium has become almost annual in occurrence in recent seasons.


Species: Dark Sword-grass Agrotis ipsilon
Comments/Details: A regular and frequent immigrant that often produces a locally-bred generation in the late summer and autumn, this bolstering further arrivals and often producing large numbers of adults, particularly in coastal southerly locations.


Species: Death's-head Hawk-moth Acherontia atropos
Ten year total 2008-17: 147  
Comments/Details: Ten-year total of adults only. Records of the early stages can be as frequent as those of the adults that are only weakly attracted to light; the peak occurrence year was 1956 when almost 400 examples were recorded of adults, larvae and pupae. In recent seasons, adult numbers have often reached double figures during a single season, with recent adult peaks of 34 in 2003 & 33 in 2006.


Species: Delicate Mythimna vitellina
Ten year total 2008-17: 7447+
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that invariably reaches 3-figure annual totals and often 4-figures; the peak total of 8622 was achieved in 2006. Most frequent in southern coastal locations, particularly the south-west, with autumn numbers often inflated by locally-bred adults.


Species: Dewick's Plusia Macdunnoughia confusa
Ten year total 2008-17: 309+
Comments/Details: Ten-year total of all adult records suspected to involve immigrants, though numbers are likely to include some locally bred insects associated with colonies in VC's 11, 13, 17, 19 and elsewhere.


Species: Dorset Cream Wave Stegania trimaculata
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: Records from Dorset in June 1979 & May 2008, Essex in July 2006, Suffolk in July 2020 and, most surprisingly, from an inland, northerly locality in Yorkshire in late August 2018.


Species: Dotted Footman Pelosia muscerda
Total no Recs: 195
Comments/Details: Total of immigrant examples unassociated with resident populations in East Anglia; these are largely from coastal localities in south-east England in late July & August.


Species: Druid Aedia funesta
Total no Recs: 17
Comments/Details: The first UK record was taken at Kingsdown (VC15) on 13.6.2014 since which funesta has occurred annually with a peak arrival of five individuals in 2017. By vice-county the 17 moths to date have been recorded from VC's 9 (2), 10 (4), 11 (2), 13 (3), 14 (4) & 15 (2).


Species: Dumeril's Rustic Luperina dumerilii
Total no Recs: 32
Comments/Details: A scarce immigrant that generally occurs in southern England during late August and September; despite increased levels of light-trapping the occurrence of this species has remained exceptional. Of the 32 records, just 23 have occurred since 1900, with only four since 1975, the most recent in 1997. Six examples caught in 1859 remain the peak, with more recently four recorded in 1961.


Species: Dusky Fan-foot Zanclognatha zelleralis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A single record from VC45 in late July 1982 may have been immigrant in origin.


Species: Dusky Hook-tip Drepana curvatula
Total no Recs: 131
Comments/Details: A species occurring with increasing frequency, first recorded in the UK in 1960 then just 11 records until the end of the 20th Century. A strong bias for records into the south-east of England, the annual peak immigrant count of 17 occurring in 2014. A localised colony was found in VC15 during 2017 which had spread into VC14 by 2020; records clearly associated with these resident populations have been excluded from the above total.


Species: Dusky Marbled Brown Gluphisia crenata
Total no Recs: 11
Comments/Details: Prior to 2019 there had been five confirmed records of immigrants, all from VC15: New Romney on 17.6.2003, Dungeness on 26.6.2011, Saltwood on 6.8.2014 & 1.7.2015, and Lydden, Kent on 1.7.2018 ; this total was almost doubled in 2019 due to the unprecedented occurrence of four individuals on a single night in late June (three in VC15 and one in VC25). Two more, adjacent VC15 records from the Sandwich area in June 2020 may lead to speculation of future colonisation, although the ability of the more sedentary female crenata to migrate to our shores is questionable.


Species: Dusky Scalloped Oak Crocallis dardoinaria
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: Two records: VC3 in September 2006 and VC9 in August 2009.


Species: Eastern Bordered Straw Heliothis nubigera
Total no Recs: 39
Comments/Details: Records widely spread across southern England and East Anglia, with single records from Wales & Ireland during the record year of 2006 when 19 examples were recorded. The majority of records have occurred during May & June but include several winter records associated with warm plumes of air emanating from Africa, including six examples associated with the December 2015 immigration from this region.


Species: Eastern Nycteoline Nycteola asiatica
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: First recorded as British in 1993, although the specimen was not confirmed as asiatica until several years later; all the UK records to date have occurred in coastal localities in southern & eastern England during the month of September.


Species: Egyptian Bollworm Earias insulana
Total no Recs: 10
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrants (an adventive example was found indoors in 2013); a majority of the records have been along the south coast of England during the month of October.


Species: Essex Y Cornutiplusia circumflexa
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A single record from Sway (VC11) on 29.7.1979.


Species: Eversmann's Rustic Actebia fennica
Total no Recs: 6
Comments/Details: Total includes one pre-1900 record; annual peak of three records in 1972, with single records in 1977 & 1983. An unusual distribution of records, with those from VC's 67 & 93 suggesting a north-easterly bias, but four of the six records coming from inland sites in central & southern England.


Species: Feline Cerura erminea
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The first British record was taken in a light-trap in coastal VC15 on 29 June 2019; a total of seven examples have been recorded from the Channel Islands since the first in 1995.


Species: Fir Carpet Thera vetustata
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: The first two records were of second-brood examples during the month of October in 2006 & 2011; the two most recent in 2015 & 2016 were of first-brood moths during the summer months. To date records have occurred in Dorset (two), West Sussex & Kent, all in coastal locations.


Species: Flame Brocade Trigonophora flammea
Ten year total 2008-17: 86+
Comments/Details: Ten-year total excludes records likely to be associated with extant breeding populations in VC's 9 & 14.


Species: Flame Wainscot Senta flammea
Total no Recs: 41+
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrant records only, from coastal localities in southern England away from known breeding areas; the peak annual total of seven such records occurred in 2019.

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Species: French Red Underwing Catocala elocata
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The first British record was taken at Eythorne (VC15) on 9.9.2015.


Species: Gem Nycterosea obstipata
Ten year total 2008-17: 2946
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that usually produces three-figure annual totals; the peak annual totals occurred in 2002 (744) and 2006 (1,185). Whilst the larvae are not known to have been recorded in the wild in the UK, this species may have been established on the Scillies for a short period in the early part of the 21st Century.


Species: Geometrician Grammodes stolida
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: A very scarce immigrant recorded from the UK as follows: Dartmouth (VC3) on 23.9.1903, Crowborough (VC14) on 30.9.1990, Portland (VC9) on 24.9.2019, and St Mary's, Isles of Scilly (VC1) on 2.10.19; both 2019 moths were active and recorded by day. An adventive example found dead in imported produce in Belfast, Co Down, in September 2017 has been excluded from the total.


Species: Golden Twin-spot Chrysodeixis chalcites
Ten year total 2008-17: 217+
Comments/Details: Ten year total of all records of a species that has increased in frequency in recent years, particularly in south-east and eastern England; the record total in 2014 saw a minimum of 90 examples recorded. There has however been no clear indication of sustained breeding success to date, although high numbers in a few localised areas would suggest some locally-bred adults are involved, and wild larvae were recorded for the first time in 2019 from VC14.


Species: Golden-rod Brindle Xylena solidaginis
Total no Recs: 22
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant records only. The record arrival of this species took place in 1954 with 17 records; since then there have been just five records of probable immigrants in five separate years.


Species: Great Brocade Eurois occulta
Ten year total 2008-17: 95
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant records only, the immigrant form being larger and paler than resident examples. Immigrants are thought to originate from Scandinavian populations and have an east to north-easterly bias to their distribution, although records can extend to the south and west of Britain during large arrival years. The two peak arrivals have occurred since the turn of the 21st Century in 2006 (421) & 2007 (162).


Species: Great Dart Agrotis bigramma
Total no Recs: 47
Comments/Details: A scarce and infrequent immigrant; the large majority of records have occurred during the month of August in coastal, central southern England.


Species: Grey Carpet Lithostege griseata
Total no Recs: 7
Comments/Details: Total of probable immigrants from east coast localities unassociated with breeding populations in the Brecks.


Species: Gypsy Moth Lymantria dispar
Ten year total 2008-17: c.67
Comments/Details: Another once scarce immigrant into Britain where the recent records have become confused by breeding, accidentally introduced populations. The ten-year total refers to probable records of primary immigrants; all of these have been male examples, a majority in coastal south-eastern and southern England between July and September. However, with introduced resident populations at a number of locations in south-east England, particulaly in the London area, a number of records included in the total may relate to wanderers from UK populations rather than from the continent.


Species: Humming-bird Hawk-moth Macroglossum stellatarum
Comments/Details: A regular, diurnal immigrant that often exceeds annual totals of 1000 adults nationally, with regular records of larvae and increasing evidence of successfully overwintering adults. Has increasingly become impossible to calculate accurate numbers of this widely encountered and recorded species, and meaningful ten-year record collation is no longer practical.


Species: Jersey Mocha Cyclophora ruficiliaria
Total no Recs: 40+
Comments/Details: Total excludes records clearly associated with colonies now present in VC's 1, 3 & 10; the populations in Cornwall and on the Isle of Wight became established around the time of the exceptionally warm, migrant-rich 2006 season.


Species: Jubilee Fan-foot Zanclognatha lunalis
Total no Recs: 8
Comments/Details: The first two records were from VC24 in August 1976 & VC9 in July 2001; in 2015 two examples were recorded in a woodland in East Kent with two further examples there in 2016 hinting at a local colony; there were however no further records from this site in 2017. A third record in 2016 came from a coastal site in VC19, and a 2014 record from a different woodland site in VC15 has recently been confirmed.


Species: Landguard Ochre Amphipyra effusa
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A single immigrant or adventive individual recorded at Landguard (VC25) on 17.6.2017.


Species: Large Dark Prominent Notodonta torva
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: One record of an adult from Eastbourne (VC14) on 29.5.1979. There was also an adult reported in 1882, said to have been reared from an ovum or larva found in Norfolk that year.


Species: Latin Callopistria juventina
Total no Recs: 17
Comments/Details: Records have occurred in every month from May to August, with an October record in 2018. 13 of the 17 records have occurred since 2015; by vice-county, the UK records have come from VC's 1 (1), 9 (2), 11 (4), 13 (3), 14 (3) & 15 (4).


Species: Latreille's Latin Callopistria latreillei
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: The four adult records to date occurred in VC15 in October 2006, at sea in late August 2007, in VC14 in October 2013, and in VC1 in October 2017 (the VC10 from July 2018 mentioned here over the last year has been found to be erroneous); the record at sea was found alive on a boat to the south of Ireland but may have been the result of ship-assisted passage as the boat had travelled from southern Europe. The species was included on the British list for many years due to a larva found in 19th Century at an unspecified locality in southern England from which an adult was bred.


Species: Lesser Belle Colobochyla salicalis
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: Just two records of probable immigrants not associated with extinct resident populations: Maidencombe (VC3) on 14.8.1965 & Eccles-on-sea (VC27) on 23.6.1998.


Species: Levant Blackneck Tathorhynchus exsiccata
Total no Recs: 28
Comments/Details: All records from southern England, the majority from VC's 1 & 9. A species often associated with periods of deep southerly airstreams during the winter months with 16 records during the January to March period; the peak arrival occurred during February 2004 when nine examples were recorded.


Species: Lewes Wave Scopula immorata
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: An extinct resident last recorded at its sole breeding location in VC14 in 1961; the only record of this species as a primary immigrant into the UK occurred in coastal, western VC11 on 29.6.2017.


Species: Light Crimson Underwing Catocala promissa
Total no Recs: 22
Comments/Details: This species remains a scarcer immigrant than sponsa, although in recent seasons immigrant records have increased in frequency with 17 presumed immigrant individuals recorded during the last three seasons under consideration. Whilst the main breeding promissa population remains in the New Forest, there is recent evidence of the successful colonisation of parts of VC's 14 & 17 (and probably elsewhere in the south-east), with records associated with these colonies excluded from the total above.


Species: Lorimer's Rustic Caradrina flavirena
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record occurred in Middlesex in October 1967; a very similar species in appearance to clavipalpis but with a resting posture similar to exigua.


Species: Lunar Double-stripe Minucia lunaris
Total no Recs: 42
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant records, not those associated with the extinct colony in VC15; of the 42 immigrant records, only 18 have occurred in the last 50 years.


Species: Lydd Beauty Peribatodes ilicaria
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: Recorded in VC15 in 1990, 1994 & 2002, and VC10 in 1996 (two); all these records have occurred during the month of August.


Species: Maize Wainscot Sesamia nonagrioides
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only record to date occurred on the Isles of Scilly (VC1) on 2.10.2011.


Species: Many-lined Costaconvexa polygrammata
Total no Recs: 56
Comments/Details: Total of immigrant examples unassociated with the extinct breeding population present in VC29 in the 19th Century; the peak arrival of 25 examples occurred in 2006.


Species: Marbled Grey Bryophila raptricula
Total no Recs: 19
Comments/Details: All the records of this species have occurred during the months of July & August in south-east England, with 14 of the 19 records from VC15. There was a surge of records during the last decade of the 20th Century since which time raptricula has become exceedingly scarce again with last UK record in 2009.


Species: Marigold Shark Cucullia calendulae
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: The three widely scattered British records come from VC1 on 7.12.2016, VCH6 on 25.12.18, and VC14 on 23.11.20, all records associated with late autumn/winter migrant arrivals and likely to relate to primary immigrants; a winter-flying species closely resembling C. chamomillae that requires specimen retention to provide confirmation of identity.


Species: Marsh Dagger Acronicta strigosa

Total no Recs: 8
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant records that have occurred since strigosa died out as resident in the 1930's. The first five immigrant records occurred during the month of July in VC13 (two in 2010), VC14 (1996 & 2015), and VC15 (2013); the most recent records were taken in VC10 on 2.8.2015 & 7.8.20, and VC13 on 25.6.20.


Species: Mediterranean Brocade Spodoptera littoralis
Total no Recs: 9
Comments/Details: Total relates to possible immigrants taken at light, although the inland, urban location of at least four of these records could be more indicative of an artificially introduced origin; indeed there have been a number of additional adventive records of the adult directly associated with imported flowers and fruits.


Species: Minsmere Crimson Underwing Catocala conjuncta
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record was taken in VC25 on 15.9.2004.


Species: Ni Moth Trichoplusia ni
Ten year total 2008-17: 495
Comments/Details: A species that can occur in greatly fluctuating numbers; this can be best illustrated by the total of 451 adults recorded during the peak season of 2006, followed by just a single record over the following two years. The large drop in the ten-year total is a result of the exclusion of the peak tally of 2006, this being greater than the total recorded from the following ten seasons.


Species: Nonconformist Lithophane lamda
Total no Recs: 15
Comments/Details: The fifteen records include several localised clusters and it is possible that most (if not all) the UK records of this moth relate to extinct breeding populations in parts of south-east England and East Anglia. The last UK record came from VC29 in 1938.


Species: Oak Processionary Thaumetopoea processionea
Ten year total 2008-17: 26
Comments/Details: Total refers to probable records of primary immigrants; all of these have been male examples, a majority in coastal south-eastern England during August. The incidence of these presumed immigrants is on the increase, emphasised by a record and widespread arrival in 2020, so records of immigrant processionea are now collated on a ten-year basis. There is also an introduced breeding population that has spread from the London area into a number of the Home Counties and a few examples included in the total may relate to wandering adults from this population rather than primary immigrants.


Species: Oak Yellow Underwing Catocala nymphagoga
Total no Recs: 7
Comments/Details: The seven scattered records have occurred across southern England and Wales between July & September, a majority from inland locations, in 1982 (two), 2002, 2005, 2007, 2014 & 2018.


Species: Oleander Hawk-moth Daphnis nerii
Total no Recs: 129+
Comments/Details: Many records of nerii in Britain are historic with the peak annual total of 15 occurring as long ago as 1953. More recently this spectacular species has become an extremely infrequent immigrant, although very recently there has been an upturn in the number of records and the 12 examples recorded in 2018 represented the highest annual total since the 1953 peak.


Species: Olive Crescent Trisateles emortualis
Total no Recs: c.58
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrant examples, unassociated with the scattered resident populations, although as this species gains breeding territory across southern England the origin of records is increasngly difficult to determine.


Species: Orache Moth Trachea atriplicis
Total no Recs: 142
Comments/Details: Total excludes records associated with the extinct resident population that died out in the first quarter of the 20th Century; highest annual totals occurred in 2010 (18) & 2015 (14).


Species: Orange Upperwing Jodia croceago
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A single record of a probable immigrant after this species became extinct as a resident: Ashdown Forest (VC13), 11.5.2006.


Species: Paignton Snout Hypena obesalis
Total no Recs: 6
Comments/Details: The six scattered records have occurred between late August and October in VC3 (1908), VC17 (1969), VC38 (1973), VC5 (2002), VC67 (2005) & VC25 (2015).


Species: Pale Shining Brown Polia bombycina
Total no Recs: 11
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant records only, all of these to date from VC15 and of a more silvery-grey appearance than the resident form.


Species: Pale Shoulder Acontia lucida
Total no Recs: 49
Comments/Details: Total includes includes nine 19th Century records, although there were no records in the period 1880-1993. The peak season of 2019 produced nine records, although this is likely to be surpassed by 2020 when a surge in records included the likelihood of successful domestic breeding in VC15.


Species: Pale-lemon Sallow Cirrhia ocellaris
Ten year total 2008-17: 57
Comments/Details: Ten-year total relates to coastal, often extralimital records in southern and eastern England that probably involve primary immigrants. Such records have become an increasingly regular feature of autumn immigrations in recent years with blank years in three of the ten years collated, and a peak arrival of at least 24 records in 2011.


Species: Pale-shouldered Cloud Chloantha hyperici
Total no Recs: 23
Comments/Details: First recorded in 1996; all records from south-east England with clusters of records in VC's 15 & 25 hinting at the possibility of temporary establishment. Recorded in every month from May to September, with 17 of the 23 records coming from the Folkestone/Hythe area where more long-term establishment seems increasingly likely.


Species: Parallel Lines Grammodes bifasciata
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The first British record of this spectacular southern European species was recorded at light at an inland locality in VC29 in early July 2020.


Species: Passenger Dysgonia algira
Total no Recs: 35
Comments/Details: All records have been from southern England, a majority during the months of August & September; the peak season occurred in 2006 when 12 examples were recorded.


Species: Patton's Tiger Hyphoraia testudinaria
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: The five records are from VC13 in May 2005, VC3 in June 2006, VC10 (two) in May 2011, & VC9 in May 2011; the last three records occurred within a two-day period and constitute the first multiple arrival of this species into the UK.


Species: Pearly Underwing Peridroma saucia
Ten year total 2008-17: 5692
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that invariably occurs in three figures each year, annual totals often exceeding 1000, and generally most frequent in southern England during the autumn months. The highest documented annual total is the 8495+ adults noted during 2006.


Species: Pine Processionary Thaumetopoea pityocampa
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: Three confirmed records of adults: Burghfield Common (VC22) in July 1966, Orfordness (VC25) on 16.8.2013, and Weymouth (VC9) on 1.8.2017; there were also unconfirmed 19th Century reports of larvae in VC16. A suspected record of pityocampa in 2019, mentioned widely on website forums, has proved to be erroneous.


Species: Pine-tree Lappet Dendrolimus pini
Total no Recs: 8
Comments/Details: The eight records of primary immigrants have related to male examples and occurred since 1996 at south coast localities from Kent to Cornwall; they exclude two very old records of questionable authenticity and records associated with a breeding population recently found in eastern Scotland.


Species: Porter's Rustic Proxenus hospes
Total no Recs: 177
Comments/Details: First recorded in 1978, the peak arrival of 53 records occurring in 2008; most frequently recorded from the southern coastal counties of England during the late summer and autumn periods.


Species: Powdered Rustic Hoplodrina superstes
Total no Recs: 7
Comments/Details: Seven documented records of this species were reported between 1886 & 1945, although the authenticity of some of these has been questioned and the lack of any records since the second world war is surprising; a wide-ranging species across parts of central & southern Europe. Any suspected examples should be retained for close examination due to the close similarity of superstes to congeners.


Species: Pretty Marbled Protodeltote deceptoria
Total no Recs: 21
Comments/Details: First recorded in 1948 with a majority of the records to date taken during the 1950's, some of these possibly associated with local breeding activity. All records have occurred during the months of May & June in south-east England and East Anglia. A very scarce immigrant in recent times with just five records since 1990: from VC14 in 1998, VC13 in 2006 & 2017, VC15 in 2018 and VC25 in 2020.


Species: Purple Cloud Actinotia polyodon
Total no Recs: 33
Comments/Details: The total includes five well-documented 19th Century records. Generally recorded in south-east England during the months of May and June, although there have recently been several late-summer records of the continental second-brood. The peak season occurred in 2018 when at least four polyodon were recorded.


Species: Purple Marbled Eublemma ostrina
Total no Recs: 203
Comments/Details: Total relates to adults only and includes 18 records from the 19th Century. A majority of records come from southern England, although it has occurred in all four countries of the UK; the peak of 23 records that occurred in 2011 more than doubled the previous highest annual total.


Species: Purple Treble-bar Aplocera praeformata
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: Records from VC23 in 1919 and VC45 in 1946; unlikely to relate to immigrants.


Species: Radford's Flame Shoulder Ochropleura leucogaster
Ten year total 2008-17: 148
Comments/Details: First recorded in 1983, with just 22 records over the subsequent 15 years; however since 2016 there has been a surge in records of this species including, in very recent seasons, a few records of summer brood individuals and thus the strong likelihood of local establishment at a few sites in coastal southern England. Due to this ongoing & sustained increase in frequency, the ten-year collation of records is now more appropriate here.


Species: Rannoch Looper Itame brunneata
Total no Recs: 1997+
Comments/Details: Total of immigrants into southern England, unassociated with resident populations in Scotland; immigrations occurred in four successive seasons from 2008 culminating in the record arrival of 1432+ adults in 2011. These invasions seemed to be associated with a population boom in Holland and the near continent, and there have been no records of immigrant brunneata since 2011.


Species: Red-headed Chestnut Conistra erythrocephala
Total no Recs: 121+
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrants, not those associated with extinct resident populations. A hibernating species that can occur in the spring and autumn, most regularly in southern and south-eastern England.


Species: Ringed Border Stegania cararia
Total no Recs: 12
Comments/Details: The first two records were on the same date (1/7) from Somerset in 2009 & Hampshire in 2010; all primary immigrant records since then have occurred during late June & July, from VC's 3, 9, 11, 14 (two), 15 (four) & 16, never exceeding two records within a single season. However, in June 2017 there was a multiple occurrence of at least 15 individuals at an inland woodland site in VC15 in association with a breeding colony, with further records annually at this locality; these records have been excluded from the above total.


Species: Rosy Underwing Catocala electa
Total no Recs: 25
Comments/Details: Five historic records from the late 19th & early 20th Centuries; the 20 modern records since 1993 have occurred in VC's 1 (1), VC9 (11), VC10 (4), VC13 (1), VC14 (1) & VC15 (2). A recent localised surge of records from coastal VC9 may indicate the initial stages of colonisation.


Species: Rusty-shouldered Pug Eupithecia breviculata
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The first British record of this species was recorded at light in coastal VC9 in early August 2020. A southern European species that has been spreading north in recent years in mainland Europe.


Species: Scar Bank Gem Ctenoplusia limbirena
Total no Recs: 28
Comments/Details: A scarce immigrant that has occurred in every month from June to October across much of southern England, the region from VC1 to VC9 producing 22 of the records; the annual peak of just three was attained in 1997, 2008 & 2017, although this will be surpassed in 2020 when that season's records are assimilated here.


Species: Scarce Arches Fabula zollikoferi
Total no Recs: 17
Comments/Details: A scarce immigrant from the east, most records having occurred during the month of September. Just two of the 17 records have been since the second world war, the most recent from VC13 in 1996. The eight records in September 1934 represent the only multiple arrival of this enigmatic species.


Species: Scarce Black Arches Nola aerugula
Total no Recs: 150
Comments/Details: Totals exclude those associated with an extinct resident population present in VC15 during the latter half of the 19th Century. Immigrants are usually recorded from coastal south-east England during June & July, the peak arrival occurred in 2018 with 19 individuals recorded.


Species: Scarce Blackneck Lygephila craccae
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: Two records of probable immigrants: Eastbourne (VC14) on 7.8.2010, & St Mary's, Isles of Scilly (VC1) on 5.10.2013.


Species: Scarce Bordered Straw Helicoverpa armigera
Ten year total 2008-17: 6111
Comments/Details: The peak season for this species by a large margin was 2006 when a minimum total of 11,705 were recorded. Most often recorded from southern England during the autumn, although 2006 saw unprecedented numbers recorded from many central, northern and inland parts of Britain.


Species: Scarce Brindle Apamea lateritia
Total no Recs: 18
Comments/Details: A clear easterly bias to the UK records of this species; the seasonally earliest record occurred in VC25 in 2017 on 22 June, all other records having occurred during the months of July & August.


Species: Scarce Dagger Acronicta auricoma
Total no Recs: 20
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrants, not those associated with extinct resident populations presenty during the 19th Century. All these have occurred since 1900 in southern and eastern England, with the exception of a record from south-west Ireland in 1937; this species remains an extreme rarity despite the increase in light-trapping in recent seasons.


Species: Scarce Hook-tip Sabra harpagula
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: Just a single record of this species occurring as an immigrant: an example of a second-brood adult in VC14 in August 2000.


Species: Scarce Silver Y Syngrapha interrogationis
Total no Recs: 215
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant examples, these tending to arrive most regularly along the east coast of Britain and having a greyer appearance than the resident form. Immigrant records were atypically widespread during the peak arrival season of 2006 when 98 examples were recorded.


Species: Shaded Fan-foot Herminia tarsicrinalis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A single record from coastal VC15 in June 2000 is the only probable immigrant example unassociated with the breeding population in East Anglia & Essex.


Species: Shining Marbled Pseudeustrotia candidula
Total no Recs: 22
Comments/Details: First recorded from VC36 in October 2006; the 21 records since have occurred during six seasons since 2012 with the peak arrival of six individuals recorded in 2019. The UK records have been widely distributed; by vice-county, candidula has occurred in VC's 2, 3, 8, 9 (two), 12, 13 (two), 14 (four), 15 (five), 18, 19, 35, 36 & 61.


Species: Silver Barred Protodeltote bankiana
Total no Recs: 196+
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrant records away from known breeding colonies; a majority of records come from south-east England during the months of June & July, the peak of 16 such records occurring in 2006.


Species: Silver-striped Hawk-moth Hippotion celerio
Total no Recs: 238+
Comments/Details: The total number includes a large number of old records that include the annual peak count of 41 in 1885. More recent peak annual totals have been 15 in 1963 & 14 in 2006; continues to be a scarce and sporadic immigrant despite the ongoing increase in light-trap recording.


Species: Silvery Gem Eucarta virgo
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: Recorded from Bodenham (VC36) on 29.6.2006, Weybourne (VC27) on 23.7.2014, and Blythburgh (VC25) on 24.7.2014, the latter two records in association with a significant immigration from the east.


Species: Slender Burnished Brass Thysanoplusia orichalcea
Total no Recs: 122
Comments/Details: The peak seasons for this moth have occurred in 1969, 1983 & 2014 with ten records in each of these years, although this will be surpassed by 2020 when records from that season are assimilated here; the majority of the records of this species continue to arrive in the late autumn into south-west England.


Species: Small Marbled Eublemma parva
Ten year total 2008-17: 625
Comments/Details: Ten-year total relates to adult records only, although the larval stage has been recorded on a number occasions and small, dark autumn moths sometimes pertain to locally-bred second brood examples. Numbers of this species can fluctuate hugely from one season to the next with the exceptional record total of 316 adults in 2011 greatly exceeding any previous annual total, and excellent totals of 129 in 2015 & 141 in 2017 interspersed with totals of just three & four records in 2016 & 2018 respectively.


Species: Small Mottled Willow Spodoptera exigua
Ten year total 2008-17: 8152
Comments/Details: A regularly occurring immigrant, although in greatly fluctuating numbers; this can be exemplified during the 21st Century by quiet seasons such as 2007 (18 records) & 2008 (25 records) contrasting with the three record years for this species in 2003, 2006 & 2015, with minimum totals of 5,201, 5,342 and 5,989 records respectively. A continuously-brooded species in warmer parts of its breeding range in southern Europe & North Africa that has occurred in every month of the year in the UK.


Species: Softly's Shoulder-knot Lithophane consocia
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record occurred at light in Hampstead, London (VC21) on 21.9.2001.


Species: Sorcerer Aedia leucomelas
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: Two records to date: Totland (VC10) on 11.9.2006 & Brightlingsea (VC19) on 12.8.2009.


Species: Southern Grass Emerald Chlorissa cloraria
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: First UK record occurred in VC9 during July 2014


Species: Southern Rustic Rhyacia lucipeta
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: An example taken at Pulborough (VC13) on 15.7.1968 remains the only UK record.


Species: Spalding's Dart Agrotis herzogi
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: The two records occurred near Camborne (VC1) on 22.11.1995 & Poole (VC9) on 17.12.2015, both in association with migrant influxes from the south; a resident of south-eastern Europe and North Africa.


Species: Spanish Carpet Scotopteryx peribolata
Total no Recs: 11
Comments/Details: Last record 1996; of the 11 examples recorded, six were associated with multiple occurrences at a single locality in Dorset 1990-1991 likely to indicate local breeding.


Species: Speckled Footman Coscinia cribraria
Total no Recs: 27
Comments/Details: Total relates to records of the immigrant race arenaria since 1900, 21 of these records coming from VC15; documentation of any records of this race prior to 1900 was unreliable.


Species: Spiny Bollworm Earias biplaga
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: Three records of adults taken at light in 1964, 1982 & 1999; the latter two of these records were taken on the south coast and almost certainly immigrants, the first record in 1964 was taken in central London and may have been an adventive individual.


Species: Splendid Brocade Lacanobia splendens
Total no Recs: 319+
Comments/Details: First recorded in 2003 when 12 examples were recorded; the total includes 90 recorded during the peak year of 2010. All records from southern England (particularly coastal locations) with the exception of a record from the Shetlands in 2010.


Species: Spotted Clover Protoschinia scutosa
Total no Recs: 61
Comments/Details: Total relates to the number of examples of adults recorded (as with all other totals) but in the case of scutosa this disguises its actual rarity as it includes several multiple records including a count of at least 30 adults together in Cornwall in May 1943. This species has become scarcer in recent times with just six records since 1969, and just two records to date in the 21st Century.


Species: Spurge Hawk-moth Hyles euphorbiae
Total no Recs: 77+ adults (48 since 1968)
Comments/Details: Total relates to adults only; has become more frequent in recent years with over half of the adult records since 1968 - recent records of larvae in Kent and Suffolk indicate the presence of short-lived colonies with a number of the adult records undoubtedly relating to locally-bred individuals.


Species: Stephens' Gem Megalographa biloba
Total no Recs: 8
Comments/Details: A strong westerly bias to the records of this nearctic species including records from Wales and Ireland; by vice-county the records come from VC1 (three), VC3 (one), VC11 (one), VC41 (one), VC46 (one) & VCH38 (one). The peak arrival occurred as recently as 2012 when three were recorded, the other records were from 1954 (one), 1958 (one), 2001 (one) & 2002 (two).


Species: Streaked Plusia Vittaplusia vittata
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only UK record occurred at Rye Harbour (VC14) on 31.7.1995, this also being the sole record for Europe.


Species: Striped Hawk-moth Hyles livornica
Ten year total 2008-17: 256
Comments/Details: Ten-year total of adults only. An immigrant that exhibits wide fluctuations in numbers arriving annually, some years being virtually absent, others reaching three figures; the record arrivals occurred in 1943 (540+) and more recently in 2006 (384). Often arrives during the spring months, with home-bred adults augmenting the numbers of arrivals during the late summer/autumn; occasionally also recorded as an immigrant in mid-winter.


Species: Striped Twin-spot Carpet Coenotephra salicata
Total no Recs: 6+
Comments/Details: At least six extralimital records from Dorset, Surrey (2), Essex (2) & Herts that may relate to immigrants.


Species: Sub-angled Wave Scopula nigropunctata
Total no Recs: 67+
Comments/Details: Total of immigrants unassociated with breeding populations in VC15; a vast majority of immigrant records from Kent and Sussex, the furthest west coming from Dorset on three occasions. Peak annual totals of immigrant nigropunctata occurred in 2015 (10) & 2016 (9).


Species: Tamarisk Peacock Chiasmia aestimaria
Total no Recs: 21
Comments/Details: First recorded in 2004, thus far recorded from coastal localities in VC's 15 (10), 14 (7), 13 (1), 10 (1) & 9 (2). By month these have occurred in July (5), August (11), September (4) & October (1), with the peak arrival of four examples in 2017.


Species: Tawny Prominent Harpyia milhauseri
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: Three records, widely chronologically spaced: from Aldwick Bay (VC13) on 11.6.1966, Dungeness (VC15) on 24.5.1993, and Weymouth (VC9) on 31.7.2020.


Species: Tawny Wave Scopula rubiginata
Total no Recs: 67+
Comments/Details: Total excludes VC25 records that are likely to be associated with breeding populations; presumed immigrants have been recorded along the south and east English coasts as far west as Cornwall and north to Yorkshire.


Species: Three-humped Prominent Notodonta tritophus
Total no Recs: 25
Comments/Details: Totals exclude any pre-1900 records which are generally rather vague or unsubstantiated. The records since 1900 have been almost entirely limited to coastal south-eastern England between Hampshire & Suffolk with well over half of them from east Kent (VC15); peak year of 2012 with four records.


Species: Tunbridge Wells Gem Chrysodeixis acuta
Total no Recs: 28
Comments/Details: 25 of the 28 British records have occurred in the month of October, the majority from VC's 1 & 9. October influxes have occurred in 1995, 2005 & 2015 in association with plumes of warm air from the south, including six in VC1 on the night of 11.10.2005.


Species: Vestal Rhodometra sacraria
Ten year total 2008-17: 14,417
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that usually produces three-figure annual totals; these have exceeded 1000 in 1947, 1983, 2003, 2006, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2016 & 2017 with peak minimum annual tallies of 2744 in 2006, 2692 in 2013, 2405 in 2015 and 4857 in 2017.


Species: Water Betony Cucullia scrophulariae
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: The two records came from the same locality: Swanage (VC9) on 12.6.1949 & 18.5.1994. Due to its similarity to S. verbasci, likely to be overlooked and thus require retention of a voucher specimen if suspected.


Species: Wedgeling Galgula partita
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: The three given records are of primary immigrants taken at times of significant immigrant activity in early October 2008 (VC1), late August 2015 (VC5) and mid-October 2018 (VC1); there is an additional record of an adventive specimen imported in packaging from North America into South Wales in 2007.


Species: White-marked Cerastis leucographa
Total no Recs: 8
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrant records only, these from coastal south-eastern England where no resident populations are extant, and in association with arrivals of Blossom Underwing Orthosia miniosa in the early spring.


Species: White-point Mythimna albipuncta
Comments/Details: No meaningful figures available for this species due to the presence of widespread, established resident populations across much of southern England south of a line from the Severn estuary to the Wash, extending west into Devon. Surprisingly still apparently absent as a colonist from the extreme south-west where it only occurs as an immigrant; immigrant records continue to occur widely in coastal southern Britain but are disguised by resident moths.


Species: White-speck Mythimna unipuncta
Ten year total 2008-17: 921
Comments/Details: Ten-year total excludes records from the Scillies where a resident population has been established at least since the turn of the 21st Century, and records are thus indistinguishable from immigrants. A regular immigrant into south-west England, becoming less frequent in more eastern and northern localities.


Species: Willowherb Hawk-moth Proserpinus proserpina
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: The three records come from a coastal locality in VC14 in May 1985, near the Thames in London (VC18) in July 1995, and near Truro (VC1) on 3.7.2015. The origins of all these records is open to conjecture and may be the result of accidental importation or deliberate introduction.


 

Species: Acrobasis fallouella
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The first British record occurred in coastal VC13 in early August 2020; whilst distinctive from British congeners there is a very similar species in continental Europe from which fallouella has recently been split and any future suspected examples of this species in Britain should be retained for close examination.


Species: Acrobasis tumidana
Ten year total 2008-17: 65
Comments/Details: An annual immigrant in varying numbers in recent seasons, particularly into coastal south-east England; the record annual total prior to 2019 was the 48 adults recorded in 2004. A huge, localised arrival event took place in 2019 when 90 were recorded on a single night in a VC15 woodland and due to this, combined with a general increase in record numbers and the suggestion of temporary establishment, the ten-year collation of assessed records has now been adopted here.


Species: Ancylodes pallens
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record came from VC9 on 5.1.1999 during a winter immigration from the south.


Species: Ancylolomia tentaculella
Total no Recs: 22
Comments/Details: An unprecedented arrival involving 15 tentaculella occurred in late July/early August 2019; these were recorded from VC's 9 (3), 10 (1), 14 (1), 15 (9) & 25 (1). The seven additional records occurred as single, isolated examples during July and the first half of August from VC's 11, 13, 15 (three), 18 & 27.


Species: Ancylosis cinnamomella
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: The only UK records occurred in from the same VC9 locality on 11.8.2003 & 6.8.2014; a widespread species across North Africa, the Middle East and much of mainland Europe as far north as Norway.


Species: Antigastra catalaunalis
Total no Recs: 261
Comments/Details: Total includes 32 records prior to 2006 when an unprecedented arrival of 134 adults occurred; since then an annual immigrant particularly into coastal southern England during the autumn months.


Species: Catoptria verellus
Ten year total 2008-17: 117
Comments/Details: Changed to a ten-year total to allow closer analysis of records due to the clear indication of domestic colonisation at a number of sites; the ten year total excludes records clearly associated with localised breeding populations.


Species: Ceutholopha isidis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A species recorded locally in the Mediterranean and more widely in North Africa; the only UK record arrived a time of intense immigration from the south, in VC15 on 18.8.2012.


Species: Chrysocrambus craterella
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: All four confirmed UK craterella records were taken during the second half of the 19th Century in VC15.


Species: Chrysocrambus linetella
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: Three of the UK records are from the 19th Century; the only modern records of primary immigrants were taken in VC13 on 8.6.1997 and in VC15 on 24.6.2019.

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Species: Cornifrons ulceratalis
Total no Recs: 18
Comments/Details: The first occurrence of this species was a remarkable, multiple arrival event in association with a major influx of immigrant insects into Britain from the south during December 2015; 18 examples of this southern European and North African crambid were recorded, mainly from central southern and south-western England but with records also from Wales & Ireland, the last occurring on 3 January 2016.


Species: Diasemia reticularis
Total no Recs: 16
Comments/Details: Total relates to records since the second world war, these scattered across parts of southern England & Wales, with a single record from the Isle of Man; a series of records during the 19th Century until 1905 are excluded from the total and may indicate localised residency in parts of southern England & south Wales.


Species: Diasemiopsis ramburialis
Total no Recs: 242
Comments/Details: Total is a bare minimum as a number of old records are vague or untraceable; a more frequent immigrant in recent times with the peak seasons occurring in 2003 & 2006 with totals of 44 & 32 records respectively. Most frequent during the autumn months in coastal central southern & south-west England, particularly VC's 1 & 9.


Species: Eccopisa effractella
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: Recorded from central London (VC21) in 1995, Dungeness (VC15) in 2006, Thanet (VC15) & Southsea (VC11) in 2015, and from Thanet again in 2018; likely to be primary immigrants although the first record may relate to an adventive. The two 2015 records were recorded on the same night at light-traps situated over 100 miles apart.


Species: Elegia atrifasciella
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only UK record occurred in VC11 on 24.4.2011; this record was formerly listed as referring to E. fallax but these congeners were recently split and examination of the Hampshire specimen has confirmed it is an example of atrifasciella.


Species: Etiella zinckenella
Total no Recs: 22
Comments/Details: Total relates to wild-caught adults, although three of these records are thought most likely to be associated with accidental importations; first recorded in the UK in 1989 and becoming more frequent in recent years with the record annual arrival of at least 20 examples occurring in 2020, although this has not yet been included in the listed total.


Species: Euchromius cambridgei
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: The two records come from inland sites in VC32 (16.8.2005) & VC17 (12.6.2014) and may relate to adventive examples, although immigration cannot be ruled out as the source of one or both.

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Species: Euchromius ocellea
Total no Recs: 382
Comments/Details: Recorded in every month of the year, but the January to March period accounts for the majority of the records, with the record annual total of 144 in 2008 including an unprecedented arrival of 141 moths during late January & February in association with a plume of warm air from North Africa. Most frequent in southern England, particularly the south-west, but has occurred throughout Britain.

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Species: Euchromius ramburiellus
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only British record to date was a retrospectively identified specimen taken at light near Penzance, Cornwall on 1 October 2011, during a period of strong migrant activity, and added to the British list in 2015.


Species: Euzophera bigella
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: Total relates only to wild-caught adults, although there have been a number of additional records of adults and larvae associated with artificial importations with food produce. A widespread species in southern Europe, the four wild-caught adult records most likely to relate to primary immigrants.


Species: Friedlanderia cicatricella
Total no Recs: 26
Comments/Details: Of the 26 records, 23 have occurred since 1999 and 22 have occurred in VC15, particularly in the extreme south-east of that vice-county; all the British records have been recorded during July and the first half of August.


Species: Hellula undalis
Total no Recs: 215
Comments/Details: First recorded in 1967 then not again until 1988, since which time it has been almost annual with the peak arrival of 73 adults having occurred in 2011; most frequently recorded during the autumn months in coastal south-west England, particularly VC1.


Species: Herpetogramma licarsisalis
Total no Recs: 34
Comments/Details: First recorded in 1998; all the records have been between late September and early November, 23 of these having occurred in VC1. Sixteen records prior to the record 2019 season when the number of British records were more than doubled; the total of 18 licarsisalis recorded in 2019 occurred during a ten-day period in late September/early October in VC's 1 (13), 9 (4) & 10 (1).


Species: Hodebertia testalis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only record was of one caught on the Scillies on 17 October 2006.


Species: Lamoria anella
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only record was of one caught at an inland site in VC31 on 5 October 2018; a potential primary immigrant species that is widely resident across southern Europe and North Africa.


Species: Loxostege sticticalis
Total no Recs: 546+
Comments/Details: Total relates to the minimum number of records of probable primary immigrants, these having been most frequent in coastal southern and eastern Britain. Favoured years for arrivals of this species include the record year of 1995 when 107 adults were recorded, and 1996 & 2001 with 72 & 76 records respectively; previously resident in East Anglia.


Species: Maruca vitrata
Total no Recs: 17
Comments/Details: Total relates only to wild-caught adults, although there have been a number of additional records of adults and larvae indoors. A widespread tropical and sub-tropical species; a majority of wild-caught adult records are likely to relate to primary immigrants.


Species: Mussidia nigrivenella
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single given record is of a probable primary immigrant taken in a light-trap at Dungeness (VC15) on 12.8.1994 at a time of much immigrant activity; there is an additional record of an adventive example found in a cocoa warehouse in London in 1930.


Species: Nomophila noctuella
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that occurs in its highest numbers during the autumn months, and has occurred in every part of Britain. Numbers tend to fluctuate more greatly than those of U. ferrugalis and it is more often recorded in high numbers diurnally when it can be disturbed in swarms during peak arrival periods.


Species: Palpita vitrealis
Ten year total 2008-17: 3349
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that is now occurring in far greater numbers than in the 20th Century when records of this species were noteworthy. This is illustrated by minimum annual totals exceeding 750 in 2006, 2013, 2014 & 2017, and into four figures in the two seasons of 2018 & 2020 (not yet included in the collated ten-year total).


Species: Paracorsia repandalis
Total no Recs: 11
Comments/Details: The ten records involved singletons in 1977, 1992, 2006, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2019 & 2020, with the only multiple arrival of three records in 2018; three records have been of first brood individuals, the other eight occurring in the autumn. By vice-county, records have come from VC's 9 (five), 10, 15 (four) & 20.


Species: Psammotis pulveralis
Total no Recs: 69
Comments/Details: Total relates to modern records only, these most frequent in coastal parts of south-east England with peak arrivals during 1998 & 2006 producing 14 records in both these years; a series of records during the late 19th Century until 1906 are excluded from the total and may indicate a very localised breeding presence at that time in southern England.


Species: Pyrausta aerealis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A widespread moth in mainland Europe; the origin of the single VC15 record in 2012 is open to speculation.


Species: Sciota rhenella
Total no Recs: 11
Comments/Details: The
11 records to date come from VC's 14 (one), 15 (six) & 25 (four), occurring between mid-June and early August with the peak annual arrival of three individuals recorded in 2019; a sciotid that is resident widely on the near continent including France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Denmark, with the clear potential for future colonisation of Britain.


Species: Selagia argyrella
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: Just a single modern record from Blythburgh, Suffolk on 6.7.2015; previous records all from 19th Century (two in Essex, one in Kent).


Species: Spoladea recurvalis
Total no Recs: 256
Comments/Details: First UK record in 1951 but remaining very scarce until 2006 when there were 19 records; more regular in appearance since then with the then record arrival of 61 individuals occurring in 2011, this being surpassed in 2018 by the total of 94 records. Most frequent during the autumn months in coastal south-west England, particularly VC1, but has occurred in every country of the UK.


Species: Udea ferrugalis
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that occurs in its highest numbers during the autumn, has occurred in every part of Britain, and can become established over several seasons at times (particularly in south-west England).


Species: Uresiphita gilvata
Total no Recs: 214
Comments/Details: A minimum total of records of immigrant adults that includes the record annual total of at least 51 individuals recorded in 2013; most frequent along the south coast, particularly from VC9 westwards, but has occurred in all the countries of the UK.


Species: Zophodia grossulariella
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: Recorded during the late April to June period, from Norfolk (1992 & 2006), Kent (1982 & 2001) & Suffolk (2016); these records are probably of immigrants, although an adventive origin cannot be ruled out.


The first UK record was taken at Kingsdown (VC15) on 13.6.2014; this was rapidly followed by three records during July 2015 from VC's 9, 11 & 14.