Migrant Totals

Published April 2017


One of the difficulties faced by recorders when they catch a rare immigrant is in confirming how many previous records there are of the species in Britain and Ireland, as inevitably the published field guides become dated very quickly. The following list covering macromoths and pyralids is intended as a resource for recorders to help with finding out how many records there are of a particular species.

Totals are compiled by Sean Clancy from a wide range of published material within the entomological press and literature, and some unpublished material sourced online or supplied directly by County Moth Recorders. For practical reasons, totals are provided to the end of 2015 with the exception of species recorded fewer than 20 times in Britain for which 2016 records are also included in the totals and mentioned in the comments section. Due to the delay in some records becoming circulated, the totals are best regarded as minimum totals as it is possible that additional records may surface from 2014 onwards. These totals will be updated annually on this basis, i.e. during spring 2018 the totals will include records up to the end of the 2016 season plus all 2017 records of immigrant species recorded less than 20 times prior to that season.

The figures quoted are generally the total number of individual adult examples ever recorded within Britain and Ireland. Where a '+' follows the figure it represents the minimum figure, this is necessary with some species where unconfirmed, duplicated or unpublished records may exist and the figure is based on the precise number of confirmed, published records but may not be comprehensive. In some species there is a cut-off period for which the number of records listed dates back to, generally because of a lack of clarity in older, historic records. For a few more regularly occurring immigrants it has only been possible to produce a 10 year total for comparison due to minimum annual totals at a national level only being available for recent seasons (currently this covers the 2004 to 2013 seasons, to be advanced by one year annually). For all species, the basis of each figure is provided in the comments section which may also include additional records of the early stages.

This list is of macromoths given first in alphabetical order of the vernacular name and pyralids listed second in alphabetical order of the respective genera.

If quoting information from this page please acknowledge the source as ‘Clancy, S.P. (year). Atropos website: migrant totals. http://www.atropos.info'

For the latest news of immigrant insect sightings in the British Isles visit the Atropos Flight Arrivals page. Post your own sightings and photographs instantly and share with others.


Species: Accent Gem Ctenoplusia accentifera
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: The two UK records occurred at Halstead (VC15) on 10.9.1969 & Exmouth (VC3) on 29.10.2014.


Species: African Condica capensis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record occurred in VC2 in May 1958 in association with an immigration from the south.


Species: Alchymist Catephia alchymista
Total no Recs: 20
Comments/Details: Many of the 19 records are historic with just four since 1934: Middleton-on-sea (VC13) on 3.7.1963, Bexhill-on-sea (VC14) on 24.8.2006 & 8.5.2007, and Stoke Newington (VC21) on 6.9.2016 .


Species: Angle-striped Sallow Enargia paleacea
Total no Recs: 109
Comments/Details: Total relates to extralimital records of suspected immigrants; the peak season occurred in 1964 when there were 26 such records.


Species: Banded Pine Carpet Pungeleria capreolaria
Total no Recs: 7
Comments/Details: Recorded from VC15 (two), VC13 & VC10 in May/June 2014; there were further records in 2015 from VC14 and in 2016 from VC's 15 & 37, all of second-brood examples during September.


Species: Barberry Carpet Pareulype berberata
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: Presumed immigrant examples from south-east Kent.


Species: Beautiful Marbled Eublemma purpurina
Total no Recs: 55
Comments/Details: First recorded in 2001, the peak arrival of 13 records occurring in 2013. A majority of the records come from southern England, particularly along the coastal strip from Dorset to Cornwall.


Species: Bedrule Brocade Mniotype solieri
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record occurred at Bedrule (VC80) on 29.8.1976; a southern European species.


Species: Bedstraw Hawk-moth Hyles gallii
Ten year total 2004-13: 189
Comments/Details: Ten-year total of adults only. Larvae are also occasionally recorded, with this species established for a longer period in East Anglia, and adult numbers probably bolstered by locally bred moths.


Species: Berber Pseudenargia ulicis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only UK record to date was taken in the New Forest (VC11) on 16.8.1935.


Species: Black Collar Dichagyris flammatra
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: Total includes three well-documented pre-1900 records: from VC10 in 1859 & 1876, and VC27 in 1875; the only records since have come from VC34 in June 1968 and VC112 in June 1997.


Species: Black V Moth Arctornis l-nigrum
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: The four records exclude a few rather vague 19th Century records, and records associated with a breeding population that was present in VC18 from 1947 to 1960. The four primary immigrant records all occurred during July from VC19 in 1904, VC13 in 1946, VC16 in 2006 & VC10 in 2015.


Species: Blair's Mocha Cyclophora puppillaria
Ten year total 2004-13: 335+
Comments/Details: The ten-year total attempts to exclude those records clearly originating from localised breeding, this becoming evident in localised parts of VC's 10, 11 & 13 from 2006. That season produced an exceptionally high frequency of migrant insects and southerly airstreams across Britain, with puppillaria colonies persisting in some areas subsequently, most particularly in several coastal localities in West Sussex.


Species: Blossom Underwing Orthosia miniosa
Ten year total 2004-13: 44
Comments/Details: Ten-year total relates to probable immigrant records only. Immigrants occur in most seasons, these generally in extralimital sites or unsuitable habitat along the south and east coasts of England during late March & April.


Species: Bordered Straw Heliothis peltigera
Ten year total 2004-13: 3706
Comments/Details: Ten-year total includes annual totals of just six in 2008, and the record total of at least 2766 adults in 2006; in good seasons can breed locally in southern Britain and produce a home-bred second generation in the late summer/autumn.


Species: Bright Wave Idaea ochrata
Total no Recs: 25
Comments/Details: Total of immigrant examples unassociated with breeding populations; mainly from coastal southern and eastern England, but including two in western Ireland in 2006.

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Species: Boathouse Gem Thysanoplusia daubei
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The first British record was taken on the Lizard (VC1) on 10.11.2014; a resident of the Mediterranean region & North Africa.

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Species: Burren Green Calamia tridens
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A single British mainland record that occurred in Essex in July 2014 in association with an arrival of immigrant Lepidoptera from the east.


Species: Cameo Crypsedra gemmea
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record occurred at an inland site in VC22 on 1.9.1979; a striking moth that is widely distributed in parts of central and northern mainland Europe; at the time of this record it was stated to be extending its range and have the potential to re-occur.

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Species: Chevron Snout Hypena lividalis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The first British example was taken in Greenwich, London (VC16) on 9.11.15; a distinctive species that is apparently undergoing westward range expansion in continental Europe.


Species: Clifden Nonpareil Catocala fraxini
Ten year total 2004-13: 198
Comments/Details: Ten-year total is necessarily approximate due to confusion caused by scattered resident populations across southern England; listed records generally relate to coastal, extralimital or out of habitat records apparently unassociated with known breeding populations. Traditionally an immigrant from the east, recent records suggest immigrants also arriving from the south with records along the whole of the south coast.


Species: Cloaked Pug Eupithecia abietaria
Total no Recs: c.70
Comments/Details: An approximate figure of potential immigrant records, although some of these records may relate to internal vagrancy.


Species: Concolorous Chortodes extrema
Total no Recs: 35+
Comments/Details: Total relates to records of suspected immigrants not associated with resident populations; almost all of these immigrant records have occurred during June & early July in south-east England, a majority in VC15.


Species: Conformist Lithophane furcifera
Total no Recs: 12
Comments/Details: Total relates to the nominate, immigrant race. The only records since 1946 occurred at Seaton Sluice (VC67) on 16.4.2007 & Insh (VC96) on 9.4.2011; a hibernating species that can occur during the autumn or spring months.


Species: Convolvulus Hawk-moth Agrius convolvuli
Ten year total 2004-13: 4446
Comments/Details: Ten-year total of adults only; larval records occur in most years and larvae can be found in good numbers in late summer/early autumn following large arrivals of adults during the summer period. A regular immigrant that usually produces three-figure annual totals; the peak annual adult counts of 2,671 in 2003 and 2,335 in 2006 were over four times any previous annual totals. The significant drop in the 10-year total currently given is due to the removal of the 2003 figures in 2017.


Species: Cosmopolitan Leucania loreyi
Ten year total 2004-13: 875
Comments/Details: An immigrant that has become more frequent in recent seasons, particularly into south-west England in the late autumn. Annual numbers fluctuate greatly with 532 adults recorded during the record year of 2006, but a combined total of just six records during the 2007 & 2009 seasons.


Species: Crimson Speckled Utetheisa pulchella
Total no Recs: 524
Comments/Details: Totals of this distinctive species include well-documented records back to 1818; these suggest that the species was more frequent in the 19th Century (when at least 270 examples were recorded) than in the 20th Century (when 135 were recorded), although the the frequency of pulchella since the turn of the 21st Century has again shown an increase (111+ up to 2013). The peak arrival years to date are 1892 (49+) and 2011 (47), with a majority of records in recent years occurring in south-west England during the month of October.


Species: Dark Crimson Underwing Catocala sponsa
Total no Recs: 66
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrant records only away from breeding populations in & around the New Forest; the 2011 season produced the peak arrival of this species to date with 11 records of immigrant adults.


Species: Dark Mottled Willow Spodoptera cilium
Total no Recs: 27
Comments/Details: A strong bias for records into the far south-west of England during late September & October; the first UK records occurred in 1990 with the record annual total of seven adults arriving during the autumn of 2011.


Species: Dark Sword-grass Agrotis ipsilon
Comments/Details: A regular and frequent immigrant that often produces a locally-bred generation in the late summer and autumn, this bolstering further arrivals and producing large numbers of adults, particularly in coastal southerly locations.


Species: Death's-head Hawk-moth Acherontia atropos
Ten year total 2004-13: 158    
Comments/Details: Ten-year total of adults only. Records of the early stages can be as frequent as those of the adults which are only weakly attracted to light; the peak occurrence year was 1956 when almost 400 examples were recorded of adults, larvae and pupae. In recent seasons, adult numbers have often reached double figures during a single season, with recent adult peaks of 34 in 2003 & 33 in 2006.


Species: Delicate Mythimna vitellina
Ten year total 2004-13: 16779
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that invariably reaches 3-figure annual totals and often 4-figures; the peak total of 8622 was achieved in 2006. Most frequent in southern coastal locations, particularly the south-west, with autumn numbers often inflated by locally-bred adults.


Species: Dewick's Plusia Macdunnoughia confusa
Total no Recs: 389
Comments/Details: Total represents all UK records of this species although these may have bolstered in recent seasons by the establishment of temporary colonies in VC's 11, 13, 17 & 19.


Species: Dorset Cream Wave Stegania trimaculata
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: Records from Dorset in June 1979 & May 2008, and from Essex in July 2006.


Species: Dotted Footman Pelosia muscerda
Total no Recs: 153
Comments/Details: Total of immigrant examples unassociated with resident populations in East Anglia; these are largely from coastal localities in south-east England in late July & August.


Species: Druid Aedia funesta
Total no Recs: 7
Comments/Details: The first UK record was taken at Kingsdown (VC15) on 13.6.2014; this was rapidly followed by three records during July 2015 from VC's 9, 11 & 14, and three more in July 2016 from VC's 10, 11 & 14.


Species: Dumeril's Rustic Luperina dumerilii
Total no Recs: 32
Comments/Details: A scarce immigrant that generally occurs in southern England during late August and September; despite increased levels of light-trapping the occurrence of this species has remained exceptional. Of the 32 records, just 23 have occurred since 1900, with only four since 1975, the most recent in 1997. Six examples caught in 1859 remain the peak, with more recently four recorded in 1961.


Species: Dusky Fan-foot Zanclognatha zelleralis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A single record from VC45 in late July 1982 may have been immigrant in origin.


Species: Dusky Hook-tip Drepana curvatula
Total no Recs: 97
Comments/Details: A species occurring with increasing frequency, first recorded in the UK in 1960 then just 11 records until the end of the 20th Century. A strong bias for records into the south-east of England, the annual peak count of 17 occurring in 2014.


Species: Dusky Marbled Brown Gluphisia crenata
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: Four confirmed records of immigrants, all from VC15: New Romney on 17.6.2003, Dungeness on 26.6.2011, and Saltwood on 6.8.2014 & 1.7.2015; there were also unconfirmed 19th Century reports of two adults and a larva.


Species: Dusky Scalloped Oak Crocallis dardoinaria
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: Two records: VC3 in September 2006 and VC9 in August 2009.


Species: Eastern Bordered Straw Heliothis nubigera
Total no Recs: 38
Comments/Details: Records widely spread across southern England and East Anglia, with single records from Wales & Ireland during the record year of 2006 when 19 examples were recorded. The majority of records have occurred during May & June but include several winter records associated with warm plumes of air emanating from Africa, including six examples associated with the December 2015 immigration from this region.


Species: Eastern Nycteoline Nycteola asiatica
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: First recorded as British in 1993, although the specimen was not confirmed as asiatica until several years later; all the UK records to date have occurred in coastal localities in southern & eastern England during the month of September.


Species: Egyptian Bollworm Earias insulana
Total no Recs: 9
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrants (an adventive example was found indoors in 2013); a majority of the records have been along the south coast of England during the month of October.


Species: Essex Y Cornutiplusia circumflexa
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A single record from Sway (VC11) on 29.7.1979.


Species: Eversmann's Rustic Actebia fennica
Total no Recs: 6
Comments/Details: Total includes one pre-1900 record; annual peak of three records in 1972, with single records in 1977 & 1983. An unusual distribution of records, with those from VC's 67 & 93 suggesting a north-easterly bias, but four of the six records coming from inland sites in central & southern England.


Species: Fir Carpet Thera vetustata
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: The first two records were of second-brood examples during the month of October in 2006 & 2011; the two most recent in 2015 & 2016 were of first-brood moths during the summer months. To date records have occurred in Dorset (two), West Sussex & Kent, all in coastal locations.


Species: Flame Brocade Trigonophora flammea
Ten year total 2004-13: 118+
Comments/Details: Ten-year total excludes records likely to be associated with extant breeding populations in VC's 9 & 14.


Species: Flame Wainscot Senta flammea
Total no Recs: c.23
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrant records only, from coastal localities in southern England away from known breeding areas.

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Species: French Red Underwing Catocala elocata
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The first British record was taken at Eythorne (VC15) on 9.9.2015.


Species: Gem Nycterosea obstipata
Ten year total 2004-13: 3276
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that usually produces three-figure annual totals; the peak annual totals occurred in 2002 (744) and 2006 (1,185). Whilst the larvae are not known to have been recorded in the wild in the UK, this species may have been established on the Scillies for a short period in the early part of the 21st Century.


Species: Geometrician Grammodes stolida
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: A very scarce immigrant recorded just twice, Dartmouth (VC3) on 23.9.1903 & Crowborough (VC14) on 30.9.1990.


Species: Golden Twin-spot Chrysodeixis chalcites
Total no Recs: 421+
Comments/Details: A species that has increased in frequency in recent years, particularly in south-east and eastern England; the record arrival in 2014 saw a minimum of 89 examples recorded. There has however been no clear indication of local breeding success to date.


Species: Golden-rod Brindle Xylena solidaginis
Total no Recs: 22
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant records only. The record arrival of this species took place in 1954 with 17 records; otherwise there have been just five records since of probable immigrants in five separate years.


Species: Great Brocade Eurois occulta
Ten year total 2004-13: 710
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant records only, the immigrant form being larger and paler than resident examples. Immigrants are thought to originate from Scandinavian populations and have an east to north-easterly bias to their distribution, although records can extend to the south and west of Britain during large arrival years. The two peak arrivals have occurred since the turn of the 21st Century in 2006 (421) & 2007 (162).


Species: Great Dart Agrotis bigramma
Total no Recs: 45
Comments/Details: A scarce and infrequent immigrant; the large majority of records have occurred during the month of August in coastal, central southern England.


Species: Grey Carpet Lithostege griseata
Total no Recs: 7
Comments/Details: Total of probable immigrants from east coast localities unassociated with breeding populations in the Brecks.


Species: Gypsy Moth Lymantria dispar
Total no Recs: 96+
Comments/Details: Total refers to probable records of primary immigrants; all of these have been male examples, a majority in coastal south-eastern England between July and September. There are also artificially introduced resident populations at a number of locations in south-east England, particulaly in the London area, and a number of records included in the total may have originated from UK populations rather than from the continent.


Species: Humming-bird Hawk-moth Macroglossum stellatarum
Ten year total 2004-13: 16529
Comments/Details: Ten-year total of adults only. A regular, diurnal immigrant that regularly exceeds annual totals of 500 adults; peak annual totals for adults occurred in 1947 (4000+), 2003 (5400+), & 2006 (6586+). Larvae are regularly recorded, particularly during good arrival years, and small numbers of hibernating adults can overwinter successfully during milder winters.


Species: Jersey Mocha Cyclophora ruficiliaria
Total no Recs: 25
Comments/Details: Total excludes records clearly associated with colonies in VC's 1 & 10, both of whch became established around the time of the exceptionally warm, migrant-rich 2006 season; records confined to southern England, including several from inland sites.


Species: Jubilee Fan-foot Zanclognatha lunalis
Total no Recs: 6
Comments/Details: The first two records were from VC24 in August 1976 & VC9 in July 2001; in 2015 two examples were recorded in a woodland in East Kent with a further example there in 2016 hinting at a local colony. A second record in 2016 came from a coastal site in VC19.


Species: Large Dark Prominent Notodonta torva
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: One record of an adult from Eastbourne (VC14) on 29/5/1979. There was also an adult reported in 1882, said to have been reared from an ovum or larva found in Norfolk that year.


Species: Latin Callopistria juventina
Total no Recs: 9
Comments/Details: The nine records have occurred in May 1959 (VC14), July 1962 (VC15), July 2001 (VC9), August 2012 (VC13), July 2015 (two in VC15) & July 2016 (VC's 9, 11 & 13).


Species: Latreille's Latin Callopistria latreillei
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: The three adult records to date occurred in VC15 in October 2006, at sea in late August 2007, and in VC14 in October 2013; the record at sea was found alive on a boat to the south of Ireland but may have been the result of ship-assisted passage as the boat had travelled from southern Europe. The species was included on the British list for many years due to a larva found in 19th Century at an unspecified locality in southern England from which an adult was bred.


Species: Lesser Belle Colobochyla salicalis
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: Just two records of probable immigrants not associated with extinct resident populations: Maidencombe (VC3) on 14.8.1965 & Eccles-on-sea (VC27) on 23.6.1998.


Species: Levant Blackneck Tathorhynchus exsiccata
Total no Recs: 24
Comments/Details: All records from southern England, the majority from VC's 1 & 9. Often associated with periods of deep southerly airstreams during the winter months with 15 records during the January to March period; the peak arrival occurred during February 2004 when nine examples were recorded.


Species: Light Crimson Underwing Catocala promissa
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: A far scarcer immigrant than sponsa with just four such records to date, from VC9 in 2009, two from VC13 in 2011, and from VC15 in 2016.


Species: Lorimer's Rustic Caradrina flavirena
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record occurred in Middlesex in October 1967; a very similar species in appearance to clavipalpis but with a resting posture similar to exigua.


Species: Lunar Double-stripe Minucia lunaris
Total no Recs: 40
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant records, not those associated with the extinct colony in VC15; of the 40 immigrant records, only 16 have occurred in the last 50 years.


Species: Lydd Beauty Peribatodes ilicaria
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: Recorded in VC15 in 1990, 1994 & 2002, and VC10 in 1996 (two); all these records have occurred during the month of August.


Species: Maize Wainscot Sesamia nonagrioides
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only record to date occurred on the Isles of Scilly (VC1) on 2.10.2011.


Species: Many-lined Costaconvexa polygrammata
Total no Recs: 43
Comments/Details: Total of immigrant examples unassociated with the extinct breeding population present in VC29 in the 19th Century; peak arrival of 25 examples in 2006.


Species: Marbled Grey Bryophila raptricula
Total no Recs: 19
Comments/Details: All the records of this species have occurred during the months of July & August in south-east England, with 14 of the 19 records from VC15.


Species: Marsh Dagger Acronicta strigosa
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant records that have occurred since strigosa died out as resident in the 1930's. The first four immigrant records occurred during the month of July in VC13 (two in 2010), VC14 (1996), and VC15 (2013); the most recent was taken in VC10 on 2.8.2015.


Species: Mediterranean Brocade Spodoptera littoralis
Total no Recs: 8
Comments/Details: Total relates to possible immigrants taken at light, although the inland, urban location of at least three of these records could be more suggestive of an artificially introduced origin; indeed there have been a number of additional adventive records of the adult directly associated with imported flowers and fruits.


Species: Minsmere Crimson Underwing Catocala conjuncta
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record was taken in VC25 on 15.9.2004.


Species: Ni Moth Trichoplusia ni
Ten year total 2004-13: 632
Comments/Details: A species that can occur in greatly fluctuating numbers; this can be best illustrated by the total of 451 adults recorded during the peak season of 2006, followed by just a single record over the following two years.


Species: Nonconformist Lithophane lamda
Total no Recs: 15
Comments/Details: The fifteen records include several localised clusters and it is possible that most (if not all) the UK records of this moth relate to extinct breeding populations in parts of south-east England and East Anglia. The last UK record came from VC29 in 1938.


Species: Oak Processionary Thaumetopoea processionea
Total no Recs: 47
Comments/Details: Total refers to probable records of primary immigrants; all of these have been male examples, a majority in coastal south-eastern England during August. There is also a recently, accidentally introduced resident population in the London area and a few examples included in the total (particularly those inland, to the north of London) may have originated from this population rather than from the continent.


Species: Oak Yellow Underwing Catocala nymphagoga
Total no Recs: 6
Comments/Details: The six scattered records have occurred across southern England and Wales between July & September, a majority from inland locations, in 1982 (two), 2002, 2005, 2007 & 2014.


Species: Oleander Hawk-moth Daphnis nerii
Total no Recs: 106+
Comments/Details: In excess of 100 adults recorded in Britain, many of these old records with the peak annual total of 15 occurring as long ago as 1953. More recently this spectacular species has become an extremely infrequent immigrant, although six examples recorded in 2014 represented the highest annual total in recent times.


Species: Olive Crescent Trisateles emortualis
Total no Recs: 50
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrant examples, unassociated with the scattered resident populations.


Species: Orache Moth Trachea atriplicis
Total no Recs: 113
Comments/Details: Total excludes records associated with the extinct resident population that died out in the first quarter of the 20th Century; highest annual total of 18 occurred in 2010.


Species: Orange Upperwing Jodia croceago
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A single record of a probable immigrant after this species became extinct as a resident: Ashdown Forest (VC13), 11.5.2006.


Species: Paignton Snout Hypena obesalis
Total no Recs: 6
Comments/Details: The six scattered records have occurred between late August and October in VC3 (1908), VC17 (1969), VC38 (1973), VC5 (2002), VC67 (2005) & VC25 (2015).


Species: Pale Shining Brown Polia bombycina
Total no Recs: 11
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant records only, all of these to date from VC15 and of a more silvery-grey appearance than the resident form.


Species: Pale Shoulder Acontia lucida
Total no Recs: 37
Comments/Details: Total includes includes nine 19th Century records and there were no records in the period 1880-1993; the other 28 records having occurred since 1994, the peak seasons of 2004 & 2006 producing six & five records respectively. All the records have come from the southern coastal counties of England, with the exception of single records from VC25 in 2004 & VC20 in 2012.


Species: Pale-lemon Sallow Cirrhia ocellaris
Ten year total 2004-13: 53
Comments/Details: Ten-year total relates to coastal, often extralimital records in southern and eastern England that probably involve primary immigrants. Such records have become an increasingly regular feature of autumn immigrations in recent years with blank years in only two of the ten years collated, and a peak arrival of at least 24 records in 2011.


Species: Pale-shouldered Cloud Chloantha hyperici
Total no Recs: 15
Comments/Details: First recorded in 1996; all records from south-east England with clusters of records in VC's 15 & 25 hinting at the possibility of temporary establishment.


Species: Passenger Dysgonia algira
Total no Recs: 26
Comments/Details: All records have been from southern England, a majority during the months of August & September; the peak season occurred in 2006 when 12 examples were recorded.


Species: Patton's Tiger Hyphoraia testudinaria
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: The five records are from VC13 in May 2005, VC3 in June 2006, VC10 (two) in May 2011, & VC9 in May 2011; the last three records occurred within a two-day period and constitute the first multiple arrival of this species into the UK.


Species: Pearly Underwing Peridroma saucia
Ten year total 2004-13: 13847
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that invariably occurs in three figures each year, annual totals often exceeding 1000. Most frequent in southern England during the autumn, the highest documented annual total is the 8495+ adults noted during 2006.


Species: Pine Processionary Thaumetopoea pityocampa
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: Two confirmed records of adults: Burghfield Common (VC22) in July 1966, & Orfordness (VC25) on 16.8.2013; there were also unconfirmed 19th Century reports of larvae in VC16.


Species: Pine-tree Lappet Dendrolimus pini
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: The five records of primary immigrants have occurred since 1996 at south coast localities from Kent to Cornwall; they exclude two very old records of questionable authenticity and records associated with a probably introduced population recently found in eastern Scotland.


Species: Porter's Rustic Proxenus hospes
Total no Recs: 139
Comments/Details: First recorded in 1978, the peak arrival of 53 records occurring in 2008; most frequently recorded from the southern coastal counties of England during the late summer and autumn periods.


Species: Powdered Rustic Hoplodrina superstes
Total no Recs: 7
Comments/Details: Seven documented records of this species were reported between 1886 & 1945, although the authenticity of some of these has been questioned and the lack of any records since the second world war is surprising; a wide-ranging species across parts of central & southern Europe.


Species: Pretty Marbled Protodeltote deceptoria
Total no Recs: 17
Comments/Details: First recorded in 1948 with a majority of the records to date taken during the 1950's, some of these possibly associated with local breeding activity. All records have occurred during the months of May & June and, with the exception of a single Norfolk record, from south-east England. A very scarce immigrant in recent times with just two records since 1990: from VC14 in 1998 & VC13 in 2006.


Species: Purple Cloud Actinotia polyodon
Total no Recs: 26
Comments/Details: The total includes five well-documented 19th Century records. Generally recorded in south-east England during the months of May and June, although there have been three recent records of the continental second-brood during the month of August, in 1996 (VC15), 1997 (VC27) & 2008 (VC25).


Species: Purple Marbled Eublemma ostrina
Total no Recs: 173
Comments/Details: Total relates to adults only and includes 18 records from the 19th Century. A majority of records come from southern England, although it has occurred in all four countries of the UK; the peak of 23 records that occurred in 2011 more than doubled the next highest annual total.


Species: Purple Treble-bar Aplocera praeformata
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: Records from VC23 in 1919 and VC45 in 1946; unlikely to relate to immigrants.


Species: Radford's Flame Shoulder Ochropleura leucogaster
Total no Recs: 35
Comments/Details: First record 1983; all records have occurred during the autumn along the south coast of England, with a majority between VC's 1 & 9 during October and early November. An unprecedented record arrival of at least 59 examples of this species in 2016 is not yet included in the total.


Species: Rannoch Looper Itame brunneata
Total no Recs: 1997+
Comments/Details: Total of immigrants into southern England, unassociated with resident populations in Scotland; immigrations occurred in four successive seasons from 2008 culminating in the record arrival of 1432+ adults in 2011.


Species: Red-headed Chestnut Conistra erythrocephala
Total no Recs: 103
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrants, not those associated with extinct resident populations. A hibernating species that can occur in the spring and autumn, most regularly in southern and eastern England.


Species: Rest Harrow Aplasta ononaria
Total no Recs: 65+
Comments/Details: Total of probable immigrants with no clear associations with the three localities holding breeding populations in VC15; a vast majority of immigrant records from south-east England.


Species: Ringed Border Stegania cararia
Total no Recs: 7
Comments/Details: First two records were on the same date (1/7) from Somerset in 2009 & Hampshire in 2010; most recently recorded from Devon (VC3) in late July 2014, Kent & East Sussex in July 2015, and Kent & Hampshire in July 2016.


Species: Rosy Underwing Catocala electa
Total no Recs: 18
Comments/Details: Five historic records from the late 19th & early 20th Centuries; the 13 modern records since 1993 have occurred in VC1 (one), VC9 (five), VC10 (three), VC13 (one), VC14 (one) & VC15 (two).


Species: Scar Bank Gem Ctenoplusia limbirena
Total no Recs: 22
Comments/Details: A scarce immigrant that has occurred in every month from June to October across much of southern England, the region from VC1 to VC9 producing 13 of the records; the annual peak of just three was attained in both 1997 & 2008. The first Welsh record occurred in 2014 in VC47.


Species: Scarce Arches Fabula zollikoferi
Total no Recs: 17
Comments/Details: A scarce immigrant from the east, most records having occurred during the month of September. Just two of the 17 records have been since the second world war, the most recent from VC13 in 1996. The eight records in September 1934 represent the only multiple arrival of this enigmatic species.


Species: Scarce Black Arches Nola aerugula
Total no Recs: 121
Comments/Details: Totals exclude those associated with an extinct resident population present in VC15 during latter half of the 19th Century. Immigrants usually recorded from coastal south-east England during June & July, the peak arrivals occurred in 1982 (nine), 2009 (11) & 2013 (nine).


Species: Scarce Blackneck Lygephila craccae
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: Two records of probable immigrants: Eastbourne (VC14) on 7.8.2010, & St Mary's, Isles of Scilly (VC1) on 5.10.2013.


Species: Scarce Bordered Straw Helicoverpa armigera
Ten year total 2004-13: 13957
Comments/Details: Ten-year total hugely increased by including record season of 2006 when 11,705 adults were recorded. Most often recorded from southern England during the autumn, although 2006 saw unprecedented numbers recorded from many central, northern and inland parts of Britain.


Species: Scarce Brindle Apamea lateritia
Total no Recs: 16
Comments/Details: A clear easterly bias to the UK records of this species, all records having occurred during the months of July & August.


Species: Scarce Dagger Acronicta auricoma
Total no Recs: 20
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrants, not those associated with extinct resident populations presenty during the 19th Century. All these have occurred since 1900 in southern and eastern England, with the exception of a record from south-west Ireland in 1937.


Species: Scarce Hook-tip Sabra harpagula
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: Just a single record of this species occurring as an immigrant: an example of a second-brood adult in VC14 in August 2000.


Species: Scarce Silver Y Syngrapha interrogationis
Total no Recs: 209
Comments/Details: Total relates to immigrant examples, these tending to arrive most regularly along the east coast of Britain and have a greyer appearance than the resident form. Immigrant records were atypically widespread during the peak arrival season of 2006 when at least 98 examples were recorded.


Species: Shaded Fan-foot Herminia tarsicrinalis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A single record from coastal VC15 in June 2000 is the only probable immigrant example unassociated with the breeding population in East Anglia & Essex.


Species: Shining Marbled Pseudeustrotia candidula
Total no Recs: 9
Comments/Details: First recorded from VC36 in October 2006; there was then an arrival of four adults over a two night period in August 2012 from VC's 2, 3, 13 & 15, followed by records from VC's 9 & 12 in August & October 2013, VC14 in June 2015, & VC15 in August 2016.


Species: Silver Barred Protodeltote bankiana
Total no Recs: 164+
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrant records away from known breeding colonies; a majority of records come from south-east England during the months of June & July, the peak of 16 records occurring in 2006.


Species: Silver-striped Hawk-moth Hippotion celerio
Total no Recs: 218+
Comments/Details: The total number includes a large number of old records that include the annual peak count of 41 in 1885. More recent peak annual totals have been 15 in 1963 & 14 in 2006. Always a scarce and sporadic immigrant with a total of 49 adults recorded since the turn of the 21st Century.


Species: Silvery Gem Eucarta virgo
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: Recorded from Bodenham (VC36) on 29.6.2006, Weybourne (VC27) on 23.7.2014, and Blythburgh (VC25) on 24.7.2014, the latter two records in association with a significant immigration from the east.


Species: Slender Burnished Brass Thysanoplusia orichalcea
Total no Recs: 114
Comments/Details: The peak seasons for this moth have occurred in 1969, 1983 & 2014 with ten records in each of these years; the majority of the records of this species arrive in the late autumn into south-west England.


Species: Small Marbled Eublemma parva
Total no Recs: 608+
Comments/Details: Total relates to adult records only, a number of these pertaining to locally-bred second brood examples; the 316 adults recorded in 2011 was approximately eight times the number recorded during the previous peak season of 1953.


Species: Small Mottled Willow Spodoptera exigua
Ten year total 2004-13: 7191
Comments/Details: A regularly occurring immigrant, although in greatly fluctuating numbers; this can be shown during the ten-year period from which the total has been provided by quiet seasons such as 2007 (18 records) & 2008 (25 records) contrasting with the two record years for this species in 2003 & 2006, with minimum totals of 5,201 & 5,342 records respectively. A continuously-brooded species in warmer parts of its breeding range in southern Europe & North Africa and has occurred in every month of the year in the UK.


Species: Softly's Shoulder-knot Lithophane consocia
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record occurred at light in Hampstead, London (VC21) on 21.9.2001.


Species: Sorcerer Aedia leucomelas
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: Two records to date: Totland (VC10) on 11.9.2006 & Brightlingsea (VC19) on 12.8.2009.


Species: Southern Grass Emerald Chlorissa cloraria
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: First UK record occurred in VC9 during July 2014


Species: Southern Rustic Rhyacia lucipeta
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: An example taken at Pulborough (VC13) on 15.7.1968 remains the only UK record.


Species: Spalding's Dart Agrotis herzogi
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: The two records occurred near Camborne (VC1) on 22.11.1995 & Poole (VC9) on 17.12.2015, both in association with migrant influxes from the south; a resident of south-eastern Europe and North Africa.


Species: Spanish Carpet Scotopteryx peribolata
Total no Recs: 11
Comments/Details: Last record 1996; of the 11 examples recorded, six were associated with multiple occurrences at a single locality in Dorset 1990-1991 likely to indicate local breeding.


Species: Speckled Footman Coscinia cribraria
Total no Recs: 18
Comments/Details: Total relates to records of the immigrant race arenaria since 1900, 13 of these records coming from VC15; documentation of any records of this race prior to 1900 was not reliable.


Species: Spiny Bollworm Earias biplaga
Total no Recs: 3
Comments/Details: Three records of adults taken at light in 1964, 1982 & 1999; the latter two of these records were taken on the south coast and almost certainly immigrants, the first record in 1964 was taken in central London and may have been an adventive individual.


Species: Splendid Brocade Lacanobia splendens
Total no Recs: 232+
Comments/Details: First recorded in 2003 when 12 examples were recorded; the total includes 90 recorded during the peak year of 2010. All records from southern England (particularly coastal locations) with the exception of a record from the Shetlands in 2010.


Species: Spotted Clover Protoschinia scutosa
Total no Recs: 61
Comments/Details: Total relates to the number of examples of adults recorded (as with all other totals) but in the case of scutosa this disguises its actual rarity as it includes several multiple records including a count of at least 30 adults together in Cornwall in May 1943. This species has become scarcer in recent times with just six records since 1969, and just two records to date in the 21st Century.


Species: Spurge Hawk-moth Hyles euphorbiae
Total no Recs: 65+ adults (39 since 1968)
Comments/Details: Total relates to relates to adults only; in contrast to nerii, has become more frequent in recent years with over half of the adult records since 1968 - recent records of larvae in Kent and Suffolk indicate the presence of short-lived colonies.


Species: Stephens' Gem Megalographa biloba
Total no Recs: 8
Comments/Details: A strong westerly bias to the records of this nearctic species including records from Wales and Ireland; by vice-county the records come from VC1 (three), VC3 (one), VC11 (one), VC41 (one), VC46 (one) & VCH38 (one). The peak arrival occurred as recently as 2012 when three were recorded, the other records were from 1954 (one), 1958 (one), 2001 (one) & 2002 (two).


Species: Streaked Plusia Vittaplusia vittata
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only UK record occurred at Rye Harbour (VC14) on 31.7.1995, this also being the sole record for Europe.


Species: Striped Hawk-moth Hyles livornica
Ten year total 2004-13: 627
Comments/Details: Ten-year total of adults only. An immigrant that exhibits wide fluctuations in numbers arriving annually, some years being virtually absent, others reaching three figures; the record arrivals occurred in 1943 (540+) and more recently in 2006 (384). Often arrives during the spring months, with home-bred adults bolstering the numbers of arrivals during the late summer/autumn; occasionally also recorded as an immigrant in mid-winter.


Species: Striped Twin-spot Carpet Coenotephra salicata
Total no Recs: 6+
Comments/Details: At least six extralimital records from Dorset, Surrey (2), Essex (2) & Herts that may relate to immigrants.


Species: Sub-angled Wave Scopula nigropunctata
Total no Recs: 48+
Comments/Details: Total of immigrants unassociated with breeding populations in VC15; a vast majority of immigrant records from Kent and Sussex, the furthest west coming from Dorset on three occasions. The peak arrival of nine immigrant nigropunctata occurred in 2015.


Species: Tamarisk Peacock Chiasmia aestimaria
Total no Recs: 11
Comments/Details: First recorded in 2004, thus far recorded from coastal localities in VC's 15 (five), 14 (four), 10 (one) and 9 (one); eight records in August, three in September.


Species: Tawny Prominent Harpyia milhauseri
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: Two records, from Aldwick Bay (VC13) on 11.6.1966, & Dungeness (VC15) on 24.5.1993.


Species: Tawny Wave Scopula rubiginata
Total no Recs: 56+
Comments/Details: Total excludes VC25 records that are likely to be associated with breeding populations; immigrants recorded along the south and east English coasts as far west as Cornwall and north to Yorkshire.


Species: Three-humped Prominent Notodonta tritophus
Total no Recs: 22
Comments/Details: Totals exclude any pre-1900 records which are generally rather vague or unsubstantiated. The records since 1900 have been almost entirely limited to coastal south-eastern England between Hampshire & Suffolk with over half of them from east Kent (VC15); peak year of 2012 with four records.


Species: Tunbridge Wells Gem Chrysodeixis acuta
Total no Recs: 28
Comments/Details: 25 of the 28 British records have occurred in the month of October, the majority from VC's 1 & 9. October influxes have occurred in 1995, 2005 & 2015 in association with plumes of warm air from the south, including six in VC1 on the night of 11.10.2005.


Species: Vestal Rhodometra sacraria
Ten year total 2004-13: 8888
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that usually produces three-figure annual totals; these have exceeded 1,000 in 1947, 1983, 2003, 2006, 2011 & 2013, with peak annual counts of 2,744 in 2006 and 1,989 in 2011.


Species: Water Betony Cucullia scrophulariae
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: The two records came from the same locality: Swanage (VC9) on 12.6.1949 & 18.5.1994. Due to its similarity to S. verbasci, likely to be overlooked.


Species: Wedgeling Galgula partita
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: The two given records are of primary immigrants taken at times of significant immigrant activity in early October 2008 (VC1) and late August 2015 (VC5); there is an additional record of an adventive specimen imported in packaging from North America into South Wales in 2007.


Species: White-marked Cerastis leucographa
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: Total relates to probable immigrant records only, these from coastal south-eastern England where no resident populations are extant, and in association with arrivals of Blossom Underwing Orthosia miniosa.


Species: White-point Mythimna albipuncta
Comments/Details: No meaningful figures available for this species due to the presence of widespread, established resident populations across much of southern England south of a line from the Severn estuary to the Wash, extending west into Devon. Surprisingly still apparently absent as a colonist from the extreme south-west where it only occurs as an immigrant; immigrant records continue to occur widely in coastal southern Britain but are disguised by resident moths.


Species: White-speck Mythimna unipuncta
Ten year total 2004-13: 1539 
Comments/Details: Ten-year total excludes records from the Scillies where a resident population has been established at least since the turn of the 21st Century, and records are thus indistinguishable from immigrants. A regular immigrant into south-west England, becoming less frequent in more eastern and northern localities.


Species: Willowherb Hawk-moth Proserpinus proserpina
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: The two records come from a coastal locality in VC14 in May 1985 and found by day near the Thames in London (VC18) in July 1995, the latter record potentially relating to an importation. One or two examples were also recorded in Cornwall in 2015 but were almost certainly released from captivity so are not included in totals.


 

Species: Acrobasis tumidana
Ten year total 2004-13: 121
Comments/Details: An annual immigrant in varying numbers in recent seasons, particularly into coastal south-east England; the ten-year total includes the record annual total of 48 recorded in 2004.


Species: Ancylodes pallens
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single record came from VC9 on 5.1.1999 during a winter immigration from the south.


Species: Ancylolomia tentaculella
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: The five records have come from coastal localities in south-east England & East Anglia during July and the first half of August; three of these come from VC15, one from VC18, & one from VC27.


Species: Ancylosis cinnamomella
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: The only UK records occurred in from the same VC9 locality on 11.8.2003 & 6.8.2014; a widespread species across North Africa, the Middle East and much of mainland Europe as far north as Norway.


Species: Antigastra catalaunalis
Total no Recs: 220
Comments/Details: Total includes 32 records prior to 2006 when an unprecedented arrival of 134 adults occurred; since then an annual immigrant particularly into coastal southern England during the autumn months.


Species: Catoptria verellus
Total no Recs: 62
Comments/Details: Possibly resident during the 19th Century when there were eight confirmed records; none were then recorded in the 20th Century but verellus has begun occurring in increasing numbers as a primary migrant during the current century, culminating in record arrivals in 2015 & 2016 (the latter year not yet included in the given total).


Species: Ceutholopha isidis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A species recorded locally in the Mediterranean and more widely in North Africa; the only UK record arrived a time of intense immigration from the south, in VC15 on 18.8.2012.


Species: Chrysocrambus craterella
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: All four confirmed UK craterella records were taken during the second half of the 19th Century in VC15.


Species: Chrysocrambus linetella
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: Three of the UK records are from the 19th Century; the only modern record of a presumed primary immigrant was taken in VC13 on 8.6.1997.

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Species: Cornifrons ulceratalis
Total no Recs: 18
Comments/Details: The first occurrence of this species was a remarkable, multiple arrival event in association with a major influx of immigrant insects into Britain from the south during December 2015; 18 examples of this southern European and North African crambid were recorded, mainly from central southern and south-western England but with records also from Wales & Ireland, the last occurring on 3 January 2016.


Species: Cydalima perspectalis

Total no Recs: 18

Comments/Details: The given total relates only to records of adults with no clear association with established colonies/local residency, and in circumstances that may relate to primary immigration. The first UK record was in 2007 and probably the result of introduction with the larval foodplant Buxus spp.; a majority of UK records relate to locally established populations that are adventive in origin.


Species: Diasemia reticularis
Total no Recs: 15
Comments/Details: Total relates to records since the second world war, these scattered across parts of southern England & Wales, with a single record from the Isle of Man; a series of records during the 19th Century until 1905 are excluded from the total and may indicate localised residency in parts of southern England & south Wales.


Species: Diasemiopsis ramburialis
Total no Recs: 226
Comments/Details: Total is a bare minimum as a number of old records are vague or untraceable; a more frequent immigrant in recent times with the peak seasons occurring in 2003 & 2006 with totals of 44 & 32 records respectively. Most frequent during the autumn months in coastal central southern & south-west England, particularly VC's 1 & 9.


Species: Diplopseustis perieresalis
Total no Recs: 17
Comments/Details: Total relates only to wild-caught adults, although there have been a number of additional records of adults and larvae indoors. An East Asian species with introduced populations in southern Europe and the Canaries; a majority of records are likely to relate to adventives although a few records indicate an immigrant origin.


Species: Duponchelia fovealis
Total no Recs: 21
Comments/Details: The given total only includes records of adults outdoors in circumstances that suggest primary immigration as their most likely origin - generally in coastal locations in association with migrant species and no clear indication of importation/introduction. A large majority of the British records of fovealis relate to adventives.


Species: Eccopisa effractella
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: Recorded from central London (VC21) in 1995, Dungeness (VC15) in 2006, and Thanet (VC15) & Southsea (VC11) in 2015; likely to be primary immigrants although the first record may relate to an adventive. The two 2015 records were recorded on the same night at light-traps situated over 100 miles apart.


Species: Elegia fallax
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only UK record occurred in VC11 on 24.4.2011.


Species: Etiella zinckenella
Total no Recs: 16
Comments/Details: Total relates to wild-caught adults, although three of these records are thought most likely to be associated with accidental importations; first recorded in the UK in 1989 and becoming more frequent in recent years with the record annual arrival of four individuals occurring in both 2011 & 2013.


Species: Euchromius cambridgei
Total no Recs: 2
Comments/Details: The two records come from inland sites in VC32 (16.8.2005) & VC17 (12.6.2014) and may relate to adventive examples, although immigration cannot be ruled out as the source of one or both.

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Species: Euchromius ocellea
Total no Recs: 341
Comments/Details: Recorded in every month of the year, but the January to March period accounts for the majority of the records, with the record annual total of 144 in 2008 including an unprecedented arrival of 141 moths during late January & February in association with a plume of warm air from North Africa. Most frequent in southern England, particularly the south-west, but has occurred throughout Britain.

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Species: Euchromius ramburiellus
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only British record to date was a retrospectively identified specimen taken at light near Penzance, Cornwall on 1 October 2011, during a period of strong migrant activity, and added to the British list in 2015.


Species: Euzophera bigella
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: Total relates only to wild-caught adults, although there have been a number of additional records of adults and larvae associated with artificial importations with food produce. A widespread species in southern Europe, the four wild-caught adult records most likely to relate to primary immigrants.


Species: Friedlanderia cicatricella
Total no Recs: 25
Comments/Details: Of the 25 records, 22 have occurred since 1999 and 21 have occurred in VC15, particularly in the extreme south-east of that vice-county; all the British records have been recorded during July and the first half of August.


Species: Hellula undalis
Total no Recs: 196
Comments/Details: First recorded in 1967 then not again until 1988, since which time it has been almost annual with the peak arrival of 73 adults having occurred in 2011; most frequently recorded during the autumn months in coastal south-west England, particularly VC1.


Species: Herpetogramma licarsisalis
Total no Recs: 10
Comments/Details: First recorded in 1998; all the records have been in October or early November, six having occurred in VC1.


Species: Hodebertia testalis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The only record was of one caught on the Scillies on 17 October 2006.


Species: Loxostege sticticalis
Total no Recs: 490+
Comments/Details: Total relates to the minimum number of records of probable primary immigrants, these having been most frequent in coastal southern and eastern Britain. Favoured years for arrivals of this species include the record year of 1995 when 107 adults were recorded, and 1996 & 2001 with 72 & 76 records respectively; previously resident in East Anglia.


Species: Maruca vitrata
Total no Recs: 14
Comments/Details: Total relates only to wild-caught adults, although there have been a number of additional records of adults and larvae indoors. A widespread tropical and sub-tropical species; a majority of wild-caught adult records are likely to relate to primary immigrants.


Species: Mussidia nigrivenella
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: The single given record is of a probable primary immigrant taken in a light-trap at Dungeness (VC15) on 12.8.1994 at a time of much immigrant activity; there is an additional record of an adventive example found in a cocoa warehouse in London in 1930.


Species: Nomophila noctuella
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that occurs in its highest numbers during the autumn months, and has occurred in every part of Britain. Numbers tend to fluctuate more greatly than those of U. ferrugalis and it is more often recorded in high numbers diurnally when it can be disturbed in swarms during peak arrival periods.


Species: Palpita vitrealis
Ten year total 2004-13: 2093
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that can occur in hugely fluctuating numbers from one season to the next; the ten-year total includes the high annual count of 813 from 2006, this matched by an annual total of 813 in 2013 and approached by the 2014 total of 734 (not yet included in ten-year total).


Species: Paracorsia repandalis
Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: Four records of adults occurred in VC9, in 1977, 1992, 2006 & 2013; the first three of these records arrived during the autumn, the 2013 example was recorded in June. The most recent was recorded from VC15 on 1 Sep 2014.


Species: Psammotis pulveralis
Total no Recs: 56
Comments/Details: Total relates to modern records only, these most frequent in coastal parts of south-east England with peak arrivals during 1998 & 2006 producing 14 records in both these years; a series of records during the late 19th Century until 1906 are excluded from the total and may indicate a very localised breeding presence at that time in southern England.


Species: Pyrausta aerealis
Total no Recs: 1
Comments/Details: A widespread moth in mainland Europe; the origin of the single VC15 record is open to speculation.


Species: Sciota rhenella
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: Four records to date, three from coastal VC15, on 20.6.2005, 8.7.2006 & 9.7.2015, and one from coastal VC25 on 2.8.2015; a sciotid that is resident widely on the near continent including France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Denmark, with the clear potential for future colonisation of the UK.


Species: Sclerocona acutellus
Total no Recs: 21
Comments/Details: Total relates to records unassociated with a breeding colony found in VC10 in 2010; it is probable that a majority of these records relate to introductions with the larval foodplant although a small number of records do suggest an immigrant origin.

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Species: Selagia argyrella
Total no Recs: 4
Comments/Details: Just a single modern record from Blythburgh, Suffolk on 6.7.2015; previous records all from 19th Century (two in Essex, one in Kent).


Species: Spoladea recurvalis
Total no Recs: 147
Comments/Details: First UK record in 1951 but remaining very scarce until 2006 when there were 19 records; more regular in appearance since then with the record arrival of 61 individuals occurring in 2011. Most frequent during the autumn months in coastal south-west England, particularly VC1, but has occurred in every country of the UK.


Species: Udea ferrugalis
Comments/Details: A regular immigrant that occurs in its highest numbers during the autumn, has occurred in every part of Britain, and can become established over several seasons at times (particularly in south-west England).


Species: Uresiphita gilvata
Total no Recs: 195
Comments/Details: A minimum total of records of immigrant adults that includes the record annual total of at least 51 individuals recorded in 2013; most frequent along the south coast, particularly from VC9 westwards, but has occurred in all the countries of the UK.


Species: Vitula edmandsii
Total no Recs: 44+
Comments/Details:

The only UK record until 2015 was taken on the east coast in VC61 on 8.8.1997; in 2015 two more were taken in coastal north-east England (16.8, VC66, & 10.10, VC67) indicating a preferred arrival pattern from the east (possibly Scandinavia) into this part of the UK. A breeding population was found in 2016 and was the probable origin of all records that season. An endemic species to North America, thought to have been accidentally introduced into Germany in the early 1940’s and extending its range in mainland Europe since that time.

 


 

Species: Zophodia grossulariella

Total no Recs: 5
Comments/Details: Recorded during the period from late April to June from Norfolk (1992 & 2006), Kent (1982 & 2001) & Suffolk (2016); these records are probably of immigrants, although an adventive origin cannot be ruled out.


The first UK record was taken at Kingsdown (VC15) on 13.6.2014; this was rapidly followed by three records during July 2015 from VC's 9, 11 & 14.